Biografi Pramoedya Ananta Toer. Shah Aburrojab. 2TCOQGF[C #PCPVC 6QGT NCJKT FK $NQTC,CYC 6GPICJ (GDTWCTK ཊ OGPKPIICN FK,CMCTVC. Keywords: Indonesia, Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Buru Quartet, the West, .. ( after Suharto relinquished power) this momentous piece of buku-buku kiri. Author: Toer, Pramoedya Ananta Download as PDF Print Jejak Langkah / Pramoedya Ananta Toer Send to Email Jejak Langkah / Pramoedya Ananta Toer .
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Get this from a library! Rumah kaca. [Pramoedya Ananta Toer]. 2-Pramoedya Ananta Toer-Anak Semua jinzihao.info Uploaded by Petrus Santoso Download as PDF or read online from Scribd. Flag for inappropriate. Pramoedya Ananta Toer was born in Blora, Central Java, on February 6, His . In Bukan Pasar Malam Pramoedya is groping towards some sort of.
This narrative voice is one with which we are not acquainted; Pangemanann intrudes into the world known only between the reader and Minke. Linked Data More info about Linked Data. Need an account? Please enter your name. The colonial present is staged as a crisis for the Indies; a struggle that must be overcome. Please create a new list with a new name; move some items to a new or existing list; or delete some items.
Siti Fatimah19 The first of the women discussed in detail was first discovered by the tapols because her behavior was di erent than that of the local Alfuru residents. Arnott standing left , October Later, Harun Rosidi who lived in a neighboring village compiled notes about Siti F. The printed dialog contains informa- tion establishing their relationship, and not much more, but Pramoedya later compiled information from Oking and Siti F. According to this explanation, the daughter of an Assiten Wedana of Singadikarta in Subang, she was in middle school when her parents agreed to allow her to continue to school in Tokyo.
Four girls left Subang, and departed with hundreds of other girls from Tanung Priok, and was taken to Flores and then Buru. At the end of the war, the demands of the girls to return to Java were refused and instead they were closely guarded.
She married a fisherman from Buton, and after his death she married a local Alfuru man. Other questions inevitably appear in reading this chapter. When she was first recruited is never stated, but it is critical as is very di erent from , nor is it clear why her parents would have consented in any case. It seems likely she meant to imply the latter, but it is very much unclear.
When discussing the end of the war, it also seems odd to refer to girls plural form , as she claimed there were only 10 Japanese in Namlea, although there could be a variety of reasons for this statement.
In , several times she came to Permukiman Giripura to buy salt, but she also would watch wayang and listen to gamelan. Based on brief conversations, the tapol guessed that she was from Pemalang in Central Java. Three tapol men, Rony, Satiusa, and Wai Durat decided to go to her village loaded with supplies. Once in the village, Wai Durat was delegated to locate Bolansar, while the others made co ee for the residents of this tiny community and tried to ensure smooth relations.
The narrator, Rony, saw the wife of the traditional leader Kepala Adat Wiranlaheng , who never spoke, and concluded that she must be Javanese based on her appearance.
Bolansar was eventually found and engaged in private conversation. According to her statements, because she was asked embarrassing questions in front of [her?
Specifically if the women were to leave the villages and take their children with them, then the tiny village communities would be irreparably damaged. Historical Information and the Discourse on Ianfu While the historical data in Perawan Remaja was compiled in a place and time where our discourse on comfort women did not exist, it was edited and published during the boom in publications about comfort women, and during the peak of NGO activity.
More than that, many judge that the aforementioned actions by the Japanese military are one of the greatest humanitarian tragedies of the 20th century, after the killings of those of Jewish descent by Nazi Germany and the killing of the members and sympathizers of the PKI in Indonesia.
It is estimated that , females from Asian countries which had been occupied by Japan, like South Korea, Taiwan, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Burma, including females from Japan itself, were made into sexual slaves. After briefly framing his narrative with a short timeline of events, Pramoedya addresses an audience of young women through a letter, imploring them not to take their security for granted and to imagine the fate of other girls like themselves at the beginning of the war.
One key assertion was that if during the colonial period the Javanese bureaucracy pangreh praja was dominant, during the Japanese occupation the propaganda ministry Sendenbu was all powerful. Pramoedya thus speculates that the Sendenbu ordered or encouraged the Javanese civil servants to recruit women, who were persuaded in part by their parents.
In some cases, Pramoedya does note that they were taken directly to the ship. In constructing his narrative, Pramoedya utilized a variety of sources, but in the context of the scattered evidence di erent times and places by di erent witnesses , the fact that nearly all evidence is speculation by individuals outside the fence and without personal contact, and that in some well-documented cases buildings were used only temporarily to collect women, the existence of a system of permanent collecting points seems a little far-fetched.
However, given the holistic assertion that the picture presented is the truth, this weakly supported picture seems troublingly similar to longstanding popular images. Chapter 4 describes the exile of the women, blending information found in later chapters with information from tapol into a narrative which reaches its emotional crescendo here. For example, Sukarno Martodihardjo related information about Sumiyati who he met in Siam [Thailand] in The fourth chapter closes with a list of five points, perhaps foreshadowing the drastic change with the narrative about Buru, or rather trying to establish a link between the first and second halves of the book: First, were released without responsibility, without severance pay, without facili- ties, and without thanks from the Dai Nippon military, as an action of washing their hands of their own evil.
Second, were turned over to their own instincts for life.
Third, were not given service and legal protection by the Government of the RI. Fourth, did not receive attention from their own families Fifth, as a result, until or around 35 years, they were forgotten exiles. Some of these readers see the book as a novel, while many others see either a humanitarian discussion of military oppression of women, or most commonly, consistent with the first four chapters, readers see a description of the oppression of Indonesian women by Japanese soldiers or Japan.
The Tragic Story of Indonesian Ianfu. Although such a full analysis of Japanese materials is outside of the scope of this study, it should be noted that the framing of the text with a political forward from KPG editors was intensified by an introduction by Utsumi Aiko, who has long been active in Korean and World War II related movements.
None of these women had any connection to Buru. Thus more ambiguous materials or those showing a range of experiences have not been highly valued Yamamoto a, Yamamoto b. I would suggest that they saw in these women victims of society who, like themselves, were exiled from Java, but were weaker and even more helpless. The fact that the women were the victims of terrible treatment during the Japanese occupation is simply the first part of the story; the main theme is the ongoing oppression by traditional society.
They live far below the civilization level and culture of their origins. They are not sought out by their family, perhaps being forgotten by them, even perhaps by the entire nation of Indonesia, and considered non-existent or lost.
They never contacted the family they left behind, because that was indeed not possible. They miss the family they left behind, and some or perhaps all of them desire to go back, even though they do not know the road which must be followed. They have become prisoners of their own environments.
The overly heavy conditions of life make them age quickly. It can be guessed that the majority of them are dead, especially as there is no medical care, the frequency of epidemics or parasite sicknesses, which is the characteristic of virtually every foreign and backward society.
Like Pramoedya and the other tapol, the Javanese women on Buru were prevented from returning to Java, or even from participating in local activities with the more modern communities on the coast, especially those with the Javanese exiles.
It is a wonderful universal statement on the human condition, the contradictory and oppressive demands of society, and the need to extend a hand to the weakest people. It is not already clear exactly who was involved in the recruiting of the girls, although certainly the Javanese bureaucracy was involved in many cases.
There are a few hints that parents were not always willing to allow their 14 year old girls go away, and there is at least one hint that a Javanese woman far away from the port cities understood the fate that awaited these girls. Pramoedya himself was skeptical about the idea of both boys and girls having the chance to go to Tokyo for further education, although he just mentioned the boys in passing.
However, it is clear that in each of these cases the families at least pretended to believe that these girls would obtain an education. It could well have been that understanding that allowed them to live at peace, both psychologically and with the realities of Java under Japanese occupation.
Thus while similar in many respects, the information in the earlier four chapters seems even more worthy of caution, perhaps because of the holistic claims that are made, rather than the careful, precise limited claims characterizing the later narratives.
The reoccupation of Buru, symbolized by the raising of the Dutch and Australian flags in October Where the movement of the ship varies from story to story, does it imply a di erent ship, a di erent awareness, or inaccuracies of the memory of one woman? The sample he presents from Buru is too small and the data presented from Java too limited to reach a conclusion.
Following up on the hints provided by Pramoedya and his fellow exiles in Buru, each of these sources may adjust our understanding of the war and comfort women.
It is even possible that field work in places like Buru will yield some useful information, although the chances of meeting either these women or eye-witnesses to the events of the war in places like Namlea decrease every year.
That is to say, it seems safe to say that much of his data about women in Buru is salvageable for the writing of history, apparently being neither fully regurgitations from contemporary discourse, nor hope- lessly vague.
This process, unfortunately, does not currently seem to be taking place. With a better process of historical reconstruction and reproduction, information about the comfort women will be more e ective in the e ort to change Indonesian society to be a safer, more just society for all of its members. These photographs were made available with the following note: Dirks, Nicholas B.
University of Michigan Press. Fox and Cli ord Sather eds. ANU E Press. Post, Peter, et. Catatan-catatan dari P. Buru, Jakarta: KPG, Raben, Remco, ed.
Rohi, Peter A. Ajia Heiwa Kokumin Kikin. Thanks are due to Mayumi Yamamoto for comments and suggestions on a draft of this article, and to the Netherlands Institute for War Documentation for consent to use photographs in their collection. The author can be contacted at dbroto gmail. Capitalism was innately tied to colonialism, in that colonies were commoditised by the ruling class. In this context, colonialism personified the fearsome child of capitalism. Marxism therefore inevitably faced problems in its translation for an Indonesian milieu — a non-capitalist society with a largely peasant population.
Formulated in and for the USSR, Lenin posited that the communist revolution could be achieved through a small revolutionary vanguard, despite the absence of a significant working class a. This more particular worldview was appealing to Indonesia, whose nationalist elite had emerged as a conscious political force in the fight for independence Christie But Lenin viewed the peasantry as an atavistic people, whose potential could only be managed through bourgeois nationalist leadership.
Moreover he only envisaged the alliance between Asian nationalists and communists in the West as a temporary arrangement, placing the broader interests of the oppressed above national aspirations Lenin ; nationalism only had value in paving the way for the real struggle; the struggle for communism.
It was Mao Tse-tung who first privileged the peasantry as the principal revolutionary class. In The Present Situation and our Tasks, Mao outlined his key idea that the growing power of the rural areas would enable them to expand and engulf the cities. True to guerrilla philosophy, Maoism was not grounded in economic determinism so much as the belief that the history of China would be determined by the spiritual quality of its leaders see Mao Considering the peasant-oriented nature of the revolution, Maoism was highly relevant to all colonies afflicted by feudalism.
The term proletariat, so influential in Marxism, was detached from its original context. Marxism-Leninism was also driven by romantic Javanese notions of the Indonesian village, and by references to the world of wayang theatre. This formed an integral part of Marhaenism; essentially, Marxism-Leninism tailored to Indonesian social conditions. Marhaenism was founded by Sukarno, first president of the Indonesian republic and close ally of the PKI.
Sukarno pictured himself as the character Bima, a heroic military figure in wayang theatre , p. Instead, a colourful variety of Indonesian Marxism was constructed through the ideals of Javanese culture. In this way Sukarno was an important synthesiser of nationalism and Marxism. This unique brand of socialism was grounded in an unwillingness to cede nationalist principles and an overwhelming desire to overthrow colonialism Mintz But we should privilege Marhaenism as an indigenous brand of socialist theory which was tailored to Indonesian political conditions at the time; a critique of European colonialism through an indigenous anti-imperialist lens.
Lekra was therefore a dynamic arts movement, but with a militant edge, through which radical nationalist ideologies were mobilised. It was through this organisation that Pramoedya Ananta Toer became a key writer of his era. Marxist literary critics see the novel as a mirror of society; in this manner, tensions that exist in the novel reflect societal tensions in the real world Eagleton If the potential of Marxist literature is in revealing the power struggles within society, then such potential is multiplied in discussion of an intricate political history that has been hidden from view for over thirty years.
It is certainly not hard to understand why Marxism-Leninism was employed as a strategy across colonial Asia, particularly in Indonesia where Marxism could theoretically flourish. But Marxism was clearly positioned uncomfortably within Indonesia, no more so than after when it was officially banned by Suharto. These struggles are encapsulated in Lekra literature, which has immortalised this period of enigmatic Marxist history, and which when unpacked, has potential to reveal the power struggles that writers faced.
Attention will now shift to the methods which shaped the analysis of the Buru Quartet.
Though researchers draw from an extensive fountain of knowledge, we fail to cast a critical gaze on these sources ibid. Moreover, complacency characterises our thought; we fail to consider the limits of our own perspective Young In the following I offer a detailed account of the process which I undertook to conduct this research.
I then move on to discuss the ethical concerns in conducting research of this variety, in the hope of addressing the aforementioned issues. I analysed the quartet through a five-step process see Appendix 1. Having read through the novels, I isolated and colour-coded key themes which could be used as a focus for analysis 1: Because such broad themes required moderating, I highlighted dominant buzzwords, phrases and discourses 2 so as to understand the ways in which these themes were approached in the quartet for instance, how the West is constructed and why, or how the author problematises non-Western approaches to modernity.
This allowed me to connect key themes together 3a , which I then combined with relevant concepts drawn from narrative theory 3b definitions adapted from Phelan unless stated otherwise: Key to understanding the quartet was the link between the narrative and authorial audiences, and this required understanding the environment in which the Buru Quartet was written. I therefore cross- referenced my analysis notes with notes taken from speech and interview transcripts 4 Appendix 2 includes extracts from those quoted in this paper.
The analysis chapters were based on a combination of geographical themes and literary concepts, and structured in different, albeit complementary ways. Key to this chapter was the connection between the narrative and authorial audiences: Across both chapters I employed a selection of representative quotes which typify the thought of the central protagonist, his social position and his political outlook. In this section I therefore discuss the all-important question of the location of meaning.
Where does the location of meaning reside: This is not so much about Indonesia, but a cognitive geography through which Indonesia is constructed. This facilitated powerful insight into his ideas, and the identities which he constructs. The predicament I faced concerned whether I should, as Chatterjee proposes, remain charitable in my interpretation and privilege the authenticity of the ideas in question, or, on the other hand, be more critical of the positionality of the subject and the discourse confining them Tate This would entail: I questioned whether such an approach was too convenient, for it would be failing to take into account my own voice.
Such issues are magnified when the literature being studied is non-Western in origin. Emerging from such a distanced reader audience means that I cannot claim to speak for Pramoedya, and inevitably my gaze will have a Western tint.
The following analysis is therefore a result of complex processes of re negotiation with the text; I neither sought to adopt a wholly etic perspective, nor to claim an emic perspective it was impossible to do so. Rather, I positioned myself in a comfortable medium: Focus will now shift to the analysis of the quartet.
This chapter examines the ways in which the central Marxist-indigenous paradox is drawn out through the novels: The quartet functions through a dual narrative: Minke is a young, idealistic writer and the first Native to have enjoyed, and been inspired by, a privileged European education.
This Earth of Mankind follows Minke as a naive eighteen year old, charting his development from an atomistic individual to a subject more aware of colonial reality. Minke becomes enchanted by Nyai Ontosoroh, whose confidence as a Native with European knowledge serves as a source of inspiration, and maturation, for Minke throughout the quartet.
Albeit scorned as the concubine of a Dutchman, her business acumen, adherence to European customs and contempt for colonial authority attest a more advanced way of life developed in defiance of her oppressors. In Child of All Nations Minke continues to face trials, both personal and political. As the quartet progresses into Footsteps, embryonic manifestations of Indonesian identity begin to materialise, through demands for liberty, equality and fraternity — the ideals of the French Revolution held so highly in the mindset of Minke, but which are mocked by colonialism.
But the Natives continue to stagnate in their old ways, and he strives to free them from their outmoded, Javanese beliefs. This narrative voice is one with which we are not acquainted; Pangemanann intrudes into the world known only between the reader and Minke. Presenting the fourth novel through Pangemanann is a crucial technique of social realism, which contrasts the consciousness of Minke to a reality which is independent of him.
It is important to question why, as a piece of socialist realist literature, Europe is idealised in this fashion. In doing so we should consider Indonesia at the time the quartet was conceived. How quickly that word had surged forward and multiplied itself like bacteria throughout the world. At least, that is what people were saying. The views of these European characters offer Minke a clearing through which to gaze towards this space which he holds so highly; except that because he is not from Europe he does not appreciate the dynamic contexts in which modernity was being articulated.
Throughout the quartet Minke refers to the ideals of the French Revolution, liberty, equality and fraternity.
He sees them as true freedoms, albeit warned by his partner Ang San Mei in Footsteps not to misinterpret the meaning of liberty. His fascination with Nyai Ontosoroh and her disavowal of feudal customs reflects a belief that the Western world can be symbolically evoked as a marker for the future of the Indies; a belief in European values. Lekra writers were encouraged to challenge colonial, and therefore Western, culture.
This argument is elaborated in chapter 5, where I discuss how Pramoedya constructs the West against his own neocolonial reality. This is the next point of interest. Certainly in the earlier novels, and to an extent throughout the quartet, Minke refuses to detach himself from capitalist culture. He feels a sense of prestige as an educated Native, regardless of whether such prestige has been indoctrinated through the colonial educational system.
He naturally identifies with capitalist European culture, exploiting his knowledge of the stylish Dutch language as a position of status, working for a prestigious Dutch newspaper. He is hurt by these words, but his initial reluctance to do so reinforces an enduring preoccupation with obtaining a Western lifestyle, through the advancement of his own career. Dutch colonialism represents, in the words of Ahiska , p.
Albeit alienated from his own present, Minke has a certain hunger for the culture of the colonising nation. Ontosoroh and others do highlight the possibility to Minke of an alternative, non-European modernity. But part of the dominant rhetoric throughout the quartet is that Europe is superior to the Indies. This is not to state that Pramoedya defends colonialism; indeed this is not a Stockholm syndrome for the colonial era.
He continues: This leads us nicely onto the second part of the paradox, the role of Javanism in the quartet.
Minke employs his European education to disavow feudal customs, but in the same instance reverts to Javanism to help explain the colonial present as was the method of Marhaenists. The latter aspect of such a complex persona is used to elucidate the problematic role of Javanese culture in Indonesia. I call this a pensive parody, which in itself represents a paradox: Albeit having emerged as a politically conscious people, Indonesia is unable to free itself from the shackles of tradition. No one can return to his starting point.
Maybe this mighty god is the one whom the Dutch call the Teeth of Time. He makes the sharp blunt, and the blunt sharp; the small are made big and the big made small. Throughout the quartet modernity is presented as an imminent choice for Minke; a dynamic inscribed on the world of Java or the world of Europe: European music stimulated in me many different thoughts. Gamelan music instead enveloped me in beauty, in a harmony of feeling that was without form, in an atmosphere that rocked my emotions to an eternal sleep.
Such vacillation reflects the broader notion that Indonesia can either remain in its old ways or break out of its cultural mould. As the personification of Indonesian nationalism, the mistakes Minke makes reflect the mistakes that Indonesia made.
Annelies too is compared to a character of ancient Javanese legend: While I have consciously used Javanese elements, I have done so with a critical eye, not under its influence. Because Marhaenism was constructed through indigenous experience, such references — particularly to the wayang — serve as a critique of the indigenous form of Marxism that was appropriated and applied in Indonesia. One of the problems with Javanism which Pramoedya describes is the level of subservience which it commands from the Indonesian people.
This is the basis of the oppression of the Javanese people through the ages, whether in their exploitation by the Dutch colonialists or their persecution under the neocolonial New Order. The bottom line for Pramoedya is to be rational and disavow Javanese mysticism in McCarthy An educated Native called Abdoel Moeis is seen wearing European attire, and is roughed up by a group of Native youths.
Reports of this incident generate huge controversy; though most blame the youth for denying Javanese tradition, others condemn the assailants for this unwarranted response. Such a minor affair! But it made so many things clear. The quartet also challenges the Suharto regime in drawing parallels between the coercive colonial administration and the self-serving, militaristic and inexorably Javanese, New Order vision. Focus will now shift to the ways in which Pramoedya constructs the West against his own supposedly neocolonial reality, through a psychological rupture between Europe and European colonialism.
The concept of modernity cannot be understood merely through a Marxian worldview, but as a psychological phenomenon and through the desire of the Native subject. This is a fundamental shaping principle of the novel. As discussed in chapter one, occidentalism is a study of the romanticised images of the West, and through examining how the West is evoked we can determine how Pramoedya constructs a creative adaptation of the Western other which is specific to a unique political geography.
Such an approach, to my knowledge, has not been undertaken in previous literature on the Buru Quartet. The West is presented as a fantasy space, which is either recognised as a model — as in European values — or disavowed as a threat to cultural identity — as in colonial coercion. But there is a certain duality concerning the way Europe is presented in the Buru Quartet. It is through this duality that Pramoedya espouses Marxist ideals in a unique way. Where the quartet refers to the character of Europe, he connects it to this historic other, and by doing so distinguishes it from the fight against colonialism.
On a basic level, such duality highlights the duplicitous implementation of Western principles in a colonial space. I re-emphasise that this section examines the counterfactual worlds of the subject.
The quartet constructs a deliberately exaggerated juxtaposition; the fairyland of Europe set against the monstrosity of European colonialism. Throughout the quartet, Pramoedya persistently evokes the historicity of the European other. On repeat occasions these principles — liberty, equality, and fraternity — are cited as a marker for the future of the Indies.
Situating Indonesia against this more idyllic representation of Europe reflects the notion that Indonesia can be what Europe should have been. The PKI represented such a vanguard; a vanguard which, Cribb observes, failed on three separate occasions between and Such a fantasy thus provides the backdrop for the recreation of the Indonesian nation.
Essentially, the European model has replicated itself through a deficient colonialist copy. Such differences Pramoedya draws out through different modes of personification. So that even my wife, who knows so little about you, lost all belief in her little world — a world incapable of providing security even for her. Minke addresses Europe as his teacher, with Europe personified as someone that Minke looks up to. The colonial present is staged as a crisis for the Indies; a struggle that must be overcome.
Minke justifies his thoughts and actions through references to both an evil colonial present and an idyllic future which the Indies can realise through overthrowing colonial power. Pramoedya therefore essentialises Europe for its ideal qualities, and defines it in opposition to the political turbulence ongoing in Indonesia. In the Buru Quartet the constant flow of history is in the colonies, and Indonesia is therefore staged as a battleground for modernity; the stage for which modernity is to transform and history to progress.
Pangemanann can only be restored to his old ways by dreaming of beautiful France, an idyll to which he dreams to return, only to be impeded by work commitments. An inquisitive Pangemanann never ceases to wrestle with his own conscience, frolicking back and forth between self-justification and self- criticism.
Through his complex musings and deterioration in health, Pramoedya can pronounce the decay of the colonial system and its depraving effect on the Indies Native.
Ontosoroh embodies a nostalgic cast back to his childhood, when European life was so pure. But she more significantly personifies the idyll of Europe; an antithesis to Pangemanann as the corrupt face of European colonialism.
Even after the Reformasi in , Pramoedya sees Indonesia as a nation threatened by neocolonialism. Discussing the self- understanding of the human subject, Eagleton postulates that the split between the ego and the other is a vital part of literary philosophy; our ego stands for the false conception of the self and its objects of desire, whilst its other represents a site of truth that will forever elude our grasp.
Juxtaposed with the grim reality of life imprisonment, it is not unlikely that such positive images of Europe were etched into his mind, offering him a refuge from his own plight. As discussed, Pramoedya disavows popular Asian values debates which criticise the supposed decadence of the West. Such is the tyranny of the Suharto regime that Pramoedya needs to believe in a good place, somewhere.
Pramoedya severs the antimodern tendencies of colonialism, and of neocolonialism, from the modernisation of the West, a space of true humanity — at least, in comparison to his own space. The quartet therefore alerts the reader to the political struggles still ongoing in neocolonial Indonesia.
Pramoedya employs Marxism as much to combat his own rulers as to criticise colonialism. Set against the fragmentation and decay of Indonesian culture, the idea of a socialist modernity seemed a long way off. Privileging the nation over the broader focus of socialism was not grounded so much in an unwillingness to cede nationalist principles, as the necessity of delivering Indonesia from its own social, cultural and political evils.
He overcomes his cultural alienation by retreating to an idealised European past; a life which he can only dream about. Europe is not presented in a negative light but employed as a positive image to guide Pramoedya through the neocolonial present. Discussion is split into three dominant, interconnected themes which emerged from the research: This has certainly been demonstrated, but only to a certain extent and not in the way predicted.
Whilst Pramoedya is undeniably part of a left-wing writing tradition, he writes from a very unique perspective, reflecting his cultural isolation under the tyrannical Suharto regime. At a superficial level, the Buru Quartet stems from a rich anticolonial writing culture, reflecting the struggles between the Natives and the Dutch at the turn of the twentieth century. This paper therefore underlines the perils of making assumptions as to how Marxism is applied in indigenous cultures.
There has certainly been a distinct lack of internal focus on the ways and reasons why non-Western Marxism is expressed, with scholars sticking to generalised Leninist assumptions of anticolonial sentiment. But Pramoedya employs a Marxist frame of thought as much to combat his own rulers as to criticise colonialism.
The quartet is certainly not a conventional example of Asian Marxist literature. Albeit necessary to explore how modernity is contested, what is less obvious is that such conflict occurs as much within indigenous cultures as between them and an image of the West. However, by connecting the quartet to lack of social change in Indonesia albeit from an individual perspective , this study has revealed something more promising. In this unique case it is Pramoedya who is contesting the way Indonesia became modern, and how it differed too much from the age of the enlightenment.
Pramoedya is therefore important as an Asian figure that subverts and, to an extent, inverts the popular Asian elitist narrative of modernity, exhorting Indonesians to look to the West where its future lies; an unerring reflection of how the West can be a positive shaping force. I wrote in chapter one that the notion that other cultures would naturally meander towards an example set by the West is problematic. Certainly in light of the cosmopolitan turn, writing about the prevalence of the West has become harder to justify.
The allure of Western freedoms becomes easier to contemplate in the thought of a subject who suffered for decades at the hands of his own country. Both narrative theory and human geography are mutually compatible and beneficial, through their combined interest in interpreting the empirical world. The complexity of literary geography arises from the murkiness of the theoretical and methodological boundaries between geographical and literary analysis.
Not that this should be taken negatively; for Hones , the potential of literary geography lies in promoting cross-disciplinary alliances. From my study the most obvious alliance which comes to mind is that between studies of occidentalism and the novel form. Thus encased in the novel is an untapped resource of intense subjectivity: In short, the text-reader interaction is central to how the geography of Indonesia is perceived. Moreover, filling the historical abyss engendered by the surreptitious New Order requires turning to buku-buku kiri, which offers one of few means to excavate this buried past.
In the words of Einstein , p.
Knowledge is limited. Imagination encircles the world. Critical theory, modernity, civilizations and democracy, European Journal of Social Theory, 14, 1, pp.