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4 5 British Civilization 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 British Civilization provides a comprehensive introduction to a wide range of aspects of. The seventh edition of John Oakland's British. Civilization (first published in ) is an updated examination of British history and culture and a resourceful. Trove: Find and get Australian resources. Books, images, historic newspapers, maps, archives and more.
Das Furchtbarste jedoch ist der Verrat. Macmillan 1 Storry, M. Julia Extra Band In 3 each ministry or department the senior official Permanent Secretary and 4 his or her assistants are responsible for assisting their minister in the imple- 5 mentation of government policy. Critics campaign to transfer road haulage to the railways and 7 the publicly owned inland waterways canals.
The Basics. Bill Jones. My Revision Notes: Mike Mitchell. Britain transformed, Peter Clements. How to Pass Higher Modern Studies. Frank Cooney. Arguing for Independence. Richard Seymour. A United Ireland. Kevin Meagher. Northern Ireland Politics. Arthur Aughey. Scottish Independence: Yes or No. Alan Cochrane. No Turning Back. Paul Addison. Political Systems. Philip Tether. Ricardo's Law. Fred Harrison. Neil McNaughton.
The Myth Of Decline. George L Bernstein. The Contemporary House of Lords. Meg Russell. Think Tank. Madsen Pirie. Local Government. Howard Elcock. Politics UK. British Politics. Richard S. Mastering British Politics. The New British Politics. Ian Budge. Irish Media. John Horgan. British Government and Politics. Michael L. What next for Labour? Ideas for a new generation. Queensferry Publishing.
David Hine. Politics in the Republic of Ireland. John Coakley. The British Political Process. Tony Wright. Britain Rebooted. David Torrance. The Making of Modern Britain, Contemporary Britain. John McCormick. British politics today: Planning and Urban Change.
Professor Stephen Ward. Inner City Regeneration. Robert K. The Regional Imperative. Urlan A. Britain since the Seventies. Jeremy Black. Unionization and Union Leadership. Paul Smith. Alex Wright. Social Issues and Party Politics. Helen Jones. Place, Policy and Politics. Michael Harloe. Ireland and the Politics of Change. William J. The Government and Politics of Ireland. Basil Chubb. Direct Rule and the Governance of Northern Ireland. Derek Birrell. Can Labour Win? Patrick Diamond. Political Power and Democratic Control in Britain.
David Beetham. Exploring British Politics. Mark Garnett. The Government of Space Routledge Revivals. Alison Ravetz. Pete Ramand. Britain in the Nineties. Hugh Berrington.
Volume Two. Labour Party General Election Manifestos Dennis Kavanagh. Regenerating the Inner City. David Donnison. Modern Constituency Electioneering. David Denver. Britain was ruled as Protectorate by Cromwell and his son Richard. Race Relations Acts: Early 17thC: Parliament only comprised House of Commons. Late s: Great Britain and Ireland united as UK. English council formed by nobles. The monarchy was abolished.
A small Privy Council royal government outside the Parliament was developed to rule the country effectively and lasted until the 18thC. Acts of Union: Since no force was involved. The Whigs: The protestant parliamentarians under Oliver Cromwell won and Charles was beheade. Population movement from s Reverse movement from big cities to New Towns in rural areas.
Specific requirements for Britain citizenship added in The Tories: Wales and Northern Ireland regained some former political identities under -Devolution. James attempt to rule without the parliament and ignoring the laws failed. Work permits: The growth of political parties and constitutional structures 17th C: Whigs and Tories. James fled to France. Powerful French-Norman barons opposed him by forcing him to sign the Magna Carta. Opposing argument: His protestant rule and parliamentary cause in Scotland and Ireland provoked hatred and unpopularity.
UK parliament has the ultimate say in how to rule the nation. Government was formed from majority in House of Commons. Therefore formal and informal checks and balances are done. First Reform Act: End 19th C: Largest minority became opposition. Later acts gave the vote to men with property and certain income. EU has increasingly affected British politics. Tories became known as conservatives in s believed in established values.
Both houses contain members from all of UK. The expansion of voting rights Late 18th. Bribery and corruption were common. Whigs developed into Liberal Party. Division of power between an executive branch monarch and Privy Council. Nowadays they can only delay bills without the financials. Scotland and Northern Ireland. Vote money for the government. Mid 19th C: Suffrage Movement increased the role of women in society. Growth of government structure Start: Legislation and procedure: It gathers fully only on ceremonies such as the opening of Parliament by monarch in House of Lords.
Parliamentary influence grew in early 18thC because of lack of interest of king George I in politics. Women is the mother in the home. Until he could choose the date of election. It is open to the public. EU legislation. The central force became the parliamentary Cabinet of senior ministers grew from the Privy Council. Parliament 1. House of Lords and monarchy lost power and reforms restricted their authority and added non-hereditary titles. In practice.
They are staffed by the Civil Service and are politically neutral and imposed under restorations in political activities. PM is appointed by monarch and is leader of majority party in House of Commons. They see themselves as alternative. The party political system: Since 17th C: It was supported by trade unions.
Two-party system has alternated power between biggest parties Conservatives and Labour. Labour Party has historically been a left-of-center party emphasizing social justice. The candidate who wins most of the votes in a constituency areas with about UK Parliament elections General elections are by secret ballot but not compulsory.
His power is the authority to choose and dismiss ministers. House of Commons: Whips are chosen among the MPs by the party leaders.
Proportional representation PR is a system supported by Lib Dems that could create a wider selection. British Commonwealth and Irish Republic citizens may vote if they are resident in Britain. The Speaker is the chief officer and is chosen by MPs.
Each elector chooses one candidate in a polling station. David Cameron present prime minister stressed that it is needed to change and modernize the image of the party and develop policies that are more in tune with the changing face of the UK. UK government: Executive arm: The present Commonwealth is a voluntary association of 53 members.
British settled in USA. Scotland got an elected Parliament with legislative and tax-carrying powers and is nowmore independent with its own first education and health issues legislations.
Northern Ireland achieved an elected Assembly with legislative and executive power.
It now provides local services such as education. Westminster Parliament still has powers over UK matters such as defense. South Africa and New Zealand. Cold War politics and domestic economy and social problems forced Britain to recognize its reduced international status. The PMs or heads of states meet every 2 years and discusses common problems. Foreign and defense policy Labour government developed a foreign policy which shifted from past aggressive action to persuasive partnerships USA.
Britain maintains its own military defense with conventional and nuclear forces. The British monarch is its non-political head and has varying constitutional roles in the different countries. The empire and Commonwealth British Empire was built up over 4 centuries starting 16thC.
Most of them stayed within. New Zealand and South Africa became self-governing dominions and eventually independent.
House of Lords can only delay or amend the government legislation. Opposition parties can only oppose in the Commons and try to persuade the electorate to dismiss the government at the next election. Britain has a declining share of the Commonwealth trading market and its economic priorities are now more with the EU and other partners. It tried to find a new identity and priorities in relation to Europe. In the late 19th and early 20th C large colonies such as Canada.
Examination of the government can be employed at Question Time in the Commons. By the 19th C. A non-tax-raising elected Assembly in Wales was established. They could choose to break the connections or to stay with the Commonwealth as independent nations.
Constitutional theory: It allows countries to decide more concerning their own affairs in devolved matters such as education. Devolved structures: Prime minister of Scotland: Local government has grown through the centuries. The West Indies were exploited commercially and became colonies. It provided a common European currency.
European Commission administrative force. European Court of Justice interprets EU laws. The growth has been seen as an important political voice in world affairs and powerful trading area in global economic matters. European Parliament elected. Chapter 7: Modern economy: Main institutions: Industrialization opposed because of negative effects low wages.
Public social sector market still exists. Luddites destroyed machinery. It saw its future in trading links with the Commonwealth and USA. End 19thC: British dominance of world trade declined. European Bank and common defense. Public-private partnerships PPP allow private companies to invest in large public capital projects. EU grants to revitalize depressed areas.
Council of ministers policy-implementing and law-initiating. It examines plans. Traditional trades reduced. Political parties accept free market or liberal economics. Labour Government nationalized several services transferred to public ownership.
Competition Commission: Private industries became virtual monopolies. It were profit-making concerns regulated in public interest by independent regulators. Labour accepted privatization. European Council government leaders who meet to discuss on political matters. Economy also affected by fluctuations in value of pound. London Stock Exchange. Equal Opportunities Commission: Sex Discrimination Act: Central clearing banks HSBC.
Industrial relations: Equal Pay Acts: Divisions still exist based on occupation Office for National Statistics classification. Last group also known as underclass: Welfare to Work program: Financial Policy Committee: Employers organizations: Industrial and commercial institutions Trade unions Canary Wharf: Manual jobs decreased.
Trading Standards Institute: Consumer protection Statutory protection grew and harmonized with EU law. Some unions admit only members who work in a specific job. Workforce more mobile. Citizens Advice Bureaux. Members pay annual subscription. Social class.
Unions vary in political orientation. Royal Bank of Scotland: Some unions joined with others in similar fields Unison. Foreign Exchange Market London: Brokers in corporate or bank offices deal in foreign currencies. FSA broke up and handed regulatory duties to Bank of England. Child Benefit: Chapter 8: Poor Law: Poor Law Amendment Act: Britain has a high percentage of working mothers but provisions for maternity leave and child care are low. NHS Direct service: Child Tax Credit: Majority are members of group practices.
Flexible working is key part of British employment patterns but also negative responses: Household and demographic structures Traditional household nuclear family: State of the NHS Ambivalent: Non-marital births caused controversy on moral and cost grounds and retain some of the old stigma although their legal standing improves.
Childbearing is delayed. To promote recovery from recessions. This would be financed by national insurance scheme. Contraception becomes more widespread. Waiting times are a big concern. Social services pensions and welfare Operated by local government and Department of Work and Pensions. Burden upon families grows as the population becomes more elderly. Two health care levels that work with Strategic Health Authorities to manage and improve local services: Follows referral from doctor or primary care.
Adoption of children by some registered civil partners and same-sex couples increases.
People may receive payments from contributory National Insurance for pensions. Progressive Liberal governments introduced reform programmes which formed basic structures of future welfare state. Marriage is still the most common form of partnership.
Social services are financed from general taxation and contributions by employers and workers over 16 to National Insurance Fund. Charges could be made for some services but this goes against the free health care principle.
Right-to-buy policy: There are still a lot of homeless people. Voluntary schools founded by religious and other groups. Other schools were created by rich people and monarchs confined to the rich. Construction of new publicly funded houses declines. Mortgage foreclosures: Variable construction standards: Personal social services State public sector Provides facilities by various agencies in local community with trained staff who assist people.
If you pass. State schools have plus examination.
Voluntary charities and agencies are complementary welfare service to state and private facilities. Chapter 9: Labour wants to abolish eleven-plus. Attitudes to social services People are concerned about public health.
Early 20thC: Some NHS hospitals share equipment with private hospitals and NHS patients are treated in private sector but scale of private involvement is small.
Private medical sector Private sector should be complementary to NHS. House prices in London and south-east England are high. Scottish schools are comprehensive. Primary and secondary schools provided by LEAs local education authorities in each county. Others live in squats unoccupied houses.