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basic telecom Questions and Answers - Download as Word Doc .doc), PDF TELECOM 2G,3G,4G,RF,IPv6 Study Materials_ GSM Interview Question -Answer. 3 This ebook includes two parts: Part I: Top 52 telecommunication engineer interview questions with answers (pdf, free download) - Part II. Top 10 telecoms interview questions with answers In this file, you .. and answers pdf download • 25 interview scenarios questions • Top
Zahid Yousuf. What experience do you have in this telecoms field? There are three options: What Is Telecom Billing? I focused on pay and benefits when I took my job.
The TIB rules require that we organize your bill so that charges from each company billing you for service appear separately. For example , if you have chosen one long-distance company for your in-region intraLATA long- distance calls and another for your out-of-region and state-to-state interLATA calls, your bill will list the calls with each company separately. You may find charges on your bill that are not from your local company.
The name and toll-free number of the company charging you for telephone-related services is listed in the section where those charges appear. You should call that company and ask for an explanation. You can also dispute the charges and request that the company remove them from your bill.
As your local company, we remind you that as part of our service commitment, our business office is always available if you have questions about your bill. If you have any difficulty in contacting the service providers listed on your bill, or if you're not satisfied with the response they give you, we' help you resolve the problem. In its rules, the FCC ordered that customers be notified of a "new" service provider any time a bill includes charges from a company that did not bill the customer for services in the previous billing cycle.
However, such notification applies only to "subscribed" services; i. For example, long-distance surcharges, voicemail, Internet access, and other services that continue until you terminate them, are subject to the notification rule. On the other hand, services billed on a per- transaction basis, such as directory assistance, dial-around toll calls, and other "non-recurring" pay-per-call services, are not subject to the notification requirements.
We identify all charges on your bill that, if not paid, could result in the disconnection of your basic local service; such services are listed as "deniable" charges. Non-payment of other, "non-deniable" charges can result in the termination of that specific service, but will not lead to the disconnection of basic local service.
If you don't recognize the charges, you should call the toll-free number listed on the bill within 60 days to ensure there is no interruption of the service in question. Some service providers bill you directly. Others use third parties, known as "billing agents" or "aggregators," to bill for them.
Thus, the actual service provider is not always the appropriate party to contact if you have questions or problems. In fact, some service providers have contracted with third-party billing agents or aggregators just to handle inquiry and dispute resolution of the charges placed on your bill.
The rules require that the toll-free number listed on your bill as the "inquiry contact" - regardless of whether it's for the actual provider, a billing agent, or an aggregator - must connect you to someone who has "sufficient knowledge and authority" to resolve account inquiries and requests for adjustment.
The FCC allows the use of inquiry contacts because of consumer concerns about the complexity of their bills and because of increased fraud and abuse. Service providers are not required to include their business address on each telephone bill for the receipt of consumer inquiries and complaints. However, they are required to make their business address available to consumers on request through their toll-free number.
In most cases, the basic local service rate covers your dial tone - the service connection that allows you to make and receive local non-toll calls. Failure to pay the basic local service rate and applicable taxes and fees will result in disconnection and loss of service. Local telephone service is billed one month in advance - and is usually due within 10 days after receipt. Charges for usage, on the other hand, are billed after a particular service; e. As part of its effort to promote competition, the FCC reviewed the rules and regulations that govern the telephone industry and decided to rebalance rates and charges.
The SLC increases reflect the FCC's belief that end-user customers should be more directly responsible for the costs necessary to provide them service and that the "access charges" paid by long-distance companies should be reduced.
Reasoning that rural customers should pay the same levels of subscriber line charges as urban customers, the FCC expanded the SLC changes to community based telecom providers in The amount of the FUSC on your monthly bill depends on the services you order and the number of telephone lines you have.
Generally, the surcharge is applied per line. The federal government has established national programs to support universal telephone service. The federal Universal Service Fund assists with the costs of providing "affordable" telecommunications service to low-income individuals and to residents in rural, high-cost areas.
In addition, Congress has expanded the program to help schools, libraries, and rural health care providers obtain leading-edge services, such as high-speed Internet access. All providers of telecom services contribute to the support of these universal service programs. The federal SLC fees are re-distributed to local telephone companies based on our specific costs. These funds enable us, and other local companies and cooperatives in hard-to-serve, high-cost areas, to recover some of the costs of the facilities we use to connect your home or business.
The FUSC fees allow us to recover our contribution assessments for the federal universal service programs. A portion of the funds collected from the Federal Universal Service Charge is distributed to keep rates in high-cost rural areas at or near the national average. For almost 70 years, the nation has made a policy commitment to make telephone service available to as many Americans as possible - rich or poor, rural or urban. When Congress passed the Communications Act in , it established the concept of universal service as a principle to promote the development and reach of the national telephone network by distributing costs across various services and users in order to connect all segments of the American public.
Universal service recognizes the economic reality that the cost of providing telephone service in rural areas such as where Public Service Telephone operates, is significantly higher than in well-populated, urban parts of the country, but that the nation as a whole benefits from a network that connects to as many Americans as possible. We can look on universal service as a system by which everyone benefits because everyone else has a telephone.
Because of universal service, independent companies serving high-cost rural areas have been assured of appropriate recognition of their costs, and Americans have been assured of quality telephone service at reasonable rates, no matter where they live.
Traditionally, long-distance carriers paid access charges to local companies for "access" to the local network to enable customers to make or receive long- distance calls. These access-charge dollars reflect a legitimate business cost, compensating local companies for the long-distance carriers' use of our networks. Universal service support and access charge revenues are essential to community based telecom providers.
These programs help companies serving rural areas keep local rates affordable and comparable to rates in urban areas where the population is more densely clustered and costs are not as high. We continue to rely on this support today, given the costs of the equipment and facilities necessary to make new and advanced services available to rural customers.
No, all local companies do not qualify for this support. While most telecom providers contribute to universal service, companies that serve large, urban markets are not likely to qualify for support from the federal Universal Service Fund. Companies that serve large cities such as Chicago, for example, and other urban areas usually do not qualify for universal service support. This, through their SLC and FUCHS payments, customers of the large urban-based companies help keep local rates "comparable" and "affordable" for those served by community based providers and other rural companies.
This mutual social benefit is the very objective that universal service was designed to achieve. Local telephone companies offer Telecommunications Relay Services TRS to help hearing- or speech-impaired individuals communicate via the telephone.
TRS is required by Title IV of the Americans with Disabilities Act and to the extent possible, must be "functionally equivalent" to standard telephone services. Communications assistants CAs relay the content of calls between users of special text telephones TTYs and users of traditional telephones. For example, a TTY user can use the phone by calling a TRS provider or relay center , where a CA will place the call to the voice user and relay the conversation by transcribing spoken content for the TTY user and reading text aloud for the voice user.
Generally, states recover the TRS costs through a small assessment on all telephone customers in the state. This tax dates back to when it was enacted to finance the Spanish-American War. All telecom providers, including long-distance companies, are required to contribute to the support of federal universal service. In recovering this assessment, most national long-distance companies charge their customers percentages above the mandatory federal level.
Some, in fact, charge customers as much as On the other hand, the long-distance subsidiaries of community based telecom providers do not exceed the federally mandated amount - and many do not pass this charge on to their customers at all.
These companies include this charge in the billing information they submit to the local company with whom they've contracted to bill for them. A local company that bills for a long-distance company does not authorize a single-bill fee. Many community based telecom providers also offer long-distance service. Customers who want their local and long-distance charges on one combined bill must select their local, long-distance provider as their preferred carrier.
Long distance service provided by community based companies generally offer rates and plans comparable to those of the national carriers. At the same time, community based companies offer the advantage of a long-distance alternative closer to home - with service from people you know and trust. Long distance rates differ significantly depending on the type of call you make; i. Also, calls are generally priced based on duration and time-of-day. Public Service Worldwide Connections does not charge a "buy in" fee for their long distance calling plan.
What Is Slamming?
You have the right to choose any certified long-distance carrier that offers you service and to change your "preferred" carrier PIC whenever you wish.
Slamming is the unauthorized and illegal switching of a customer's preferred long-distance company. If you've been slammed, you have the right to be switched back to your preferred carrier at no cost.
Customers who believe they've been slammed; i. Once we receive notification of an unauthorized PIC change, we will do the following: The FCC rules require that: The customer has the option of requesting that the authorized carrier re-bill the unauthorized charges at the authorized carriers rate.
In either case, however, the customer will actually receive the refund only if the unauthorized carrier remitted the funds to the authorized carrier. If the customer has charges from an unauthorized carrier for calls made after the day absolution period and for which payment has not been made, the unauthorized carrier must remove the charges from the bill and forward the billing information to the authorized carrier. What Is Telecom Billing? Telecommunications billing is the group of processes of communications service providers that are responsible to collect consumption data, calculate charging and billing information, produce bills to customers, process their payments and manage debt collection.
Consider any call forwarding scenario As soon as switch receives Setup, it checks that the Called Party has forwarded option activated and so tries to forward the call.
A message, sent in either direction during the setup or active phase of the call ex. What Is A Superheterodyne Receiver? Superheterodyne receiver is one which has same carrier frequency as the transmitter otherwise the original signal recovery will not be possible.
Telecom Billing Tutorial. All Tutorials. All Practice Tests. IT Skills. Management Skills.
Communication Skills. Business Skills. Digital Marketing Skills. The three types of dedicated control channels are Slow Associated Control Channel.
Handover commands. MS maximum transmit power on CCHs and local area identification. Paging messages are sent to the area where the recipient MS is located. The AGCH is used for sending access grant messages.
The Broadcast Control Channel broadcasts general information about the cell viz. The RACH is used to transfer uplink messages in response to the call initiation request placed by the MS or in response to a paging request or automatically as part of a location update.
It is used for service requests eg. The main function of the Radio resource management layer is to establish and release stable connections between mobile stations and the MSC for the duration of the call and to maintain the connection despite user movements.
The security function is performed by the AuC. The BSIC is a color code which the MSs use to be able to discriminate between the cells transmitting their beacon channels on the same frequency. The machines concerned with mobility management are mainly the MS. A mobile is said to be in idle mode when it is active powered on but is not allocated any traffic channel. The mobility Management layer manages the location updating.
Communications Management sub layer terminates at the MSC and contains entities that currently consist of CC including call-related supplementary services. In the idle mode the MS listens to broadcast channels in order to intercept paging messages. To alleviate this load. Hence important resources are consumed for nothing. The IMSI is known only to the subscriber and is kept internal and transmitted as rarely as possible for security reasons keeping the identity of the subscriber confidential in case some one is listening on the air interface.
It is the number dialed when someone needs to call the mobile subscriber. For the sake of battery consumption in MS. Therefore the downlink common control channel is divided into several paging sub channels and all messages pertaining to a given.
It is the identity of the subscriber known by the external world.
Power is conserved at the mobile unit by appling Discontinuous Transmission. Discontinuous transmission DTX is a method that takes advantage of the fact that a person speaks less that 40 percent of the time in normal conversation by turning the transmitter off during silence periods.
Such a scheme allows the MS to restrict the monitoring of paging messages to their own paging sub channel. When a MS moves to a new location area or is switched on in a new location area. Frequency Synchronization Burst. Planning Tool Loading of digital map data of the city on the planning tool.
Model tuning for proper prediction on the tool. Antennas of different types based on antenna beamwidth and gain. Nominal cell planning for the coverage. In GSM We have space diversity antenna and cross polorised antenna.
Omni antennas. Final system planning. Used to implement all procedures between the MSC and the BSS that require interpretation and processing of information related to single calls and resource management. Frequency reuse pattern is used for capacity planning.
Beamwidth and tilt improves the coverage of the planned area. Increase in antenna height improves the coverage. Power increases the coverage. Automatic frequency planning can be done in planning tool.
Proper Orientation. To minimize frequency interference problems. How is it calculated? Why is frequency reuse pattern used? How is frequency planning done on planning tool? Proper frequency planning. Why is it used? Okarama Hatta model? Model tuning is done for any planning tool to obtain proper prediction expected from planning tool as there will be difference in actual and predicted data for planning tool.
Link budget analysis is used for the path balance between both uplink Transmitter Downlink Receiver part of the network. The interference caused by using same channels in a network is called cochannel interference and interference caused by adjacent channels of is called adjacent channel interference. One of the model is Okarama Hatta Hatta Model is used which considers the signal propagation losses. Addition of BTSs 14 How is site selection done for planning and site acquisition?
After nominal cell planning with the geographical coordinates identifying best site candidate in a geographical area is the process of site selection. Proper antenna orientation and tilts and antenna types can be used for optimizing network. This is process of increasing traffic by adding Trxs traffic channels and proper use of frequency reuse pattern.
What are the tools used for optimization?
Planning tool and Post processing tools are Used for optimization. Drive test tool. This is the total path loss occurred due to multipath propagation of the signal between transmitted signal and the received signal level. This is the table for calculating Traffic in erlang for no of channels.
System information is from BTS sent to Mobile for the idle mode and dedicated mode of the call for call management. Proper increase in call success. Bench Marking used for comparing performance of different network for quality and call performance parameters.
Grade of service is the blocking for the given traffic channels. Checking proper neighbor list. This is process of handover done by mobile in idle mode from selected cell to another cell. This is the signal strength measured in idle mode for selecting best serving channel. Flag for inappropriate content.