Download RECENT TRENDS IN AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING DOWNLOAD PDF - KB. Share Embed Donate. Report this link. The automobile industry plays an important role in overall business cycle At current low levels, car sales are well-below estimated longer-term trend levels in . Recent Trends in Automobile Environmental. Energy Policies. March 18 March 18, Michiko Watanabe. Automobile Division, Manufacturing.
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Presentation Transcript. Increased use of car-sharing for local transport reduces the overall demand for vehicles which in turn reduces greenhouse gas emission for manufacturing automobiles. The advantages of fuel cells for transport are both environmental and economic. Fuel cells can compete with batteries and generators for portable use, from a few kilowatts to power a mobile home down to a few watts to power a laptop computer. All Rights Reserved.
A fuel cell vehicle that runs on pure hydrogen produces only water vapor—using any other fuel will produce some carbon dioxide and other emissions, but far less than what is produced by a conventional vehicle. Fuel cell vehicles are expected to achieve overall energy conversion throughput efficiencies around twice that of today's typical gasoline internal combustion engines.
Fuel cell vehicles can run on any hydrogen-rich liquid or gas, as long as it is suitably processed. Gasoline is one possibility, but in addition to pure hydrogen, alternative fuels such as ethanol, methanol, natural gas, and propane can also be used.
Why fuel cells for vehicles? The advantages of fuel cells for transport are both environmental and economic. The only emissions from a fuel cell vehicle come from the generation of hydrogen. These emissions are hardly measurable, making fuel cell vehicles virtually equivalent to zeroemission vehicles. Fuel cell cars will have similar range and performance to cars with internal combustion engines, but the superior energy efficiency of fuel cell engines will bring a significant reduction in carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, for every mile travelled.
If fuelled directly by hydrogen, there will be no carbon dioxide emissions at all. Portable fuel cells: Fuel cells can compete with batteries and generators for portable use, from a few kilowatts to power a mobile home down to a few watts to power a laptop computer. Prototypes have been publicly shown of this type of technology and fuel cell powered mobile phones and laptops are being exhibited at the World Expo in Japan.
Manhattan Scientifics Inc. Because a fuel cell stack powers its electric motor, the Hydro cycle is extremely quiet and does not need to be recharged like existing electric bicycles; it only needs to be refueled.
This would come as a welcome advancement for electric-bike riders frustrated with waiting hours to recharge their battery-powered bicycles Efficiency of Fuel Cells: Pollution reduction is one of the primary goals of the fuel cell. By comparing a fuel-cell-powered car to a gasoline-engine-powered car and a battery-powered car, you can see how fuel cells might improve the efficiency of cars today.
Since all three types of cars have many of the same components tires, transmissions, etc. Let's start with the fuel-cell car. All of these efficiencies are approximations, but they should be close enough to make a rough comparison. Fuel-Cell-Powered Electric Car: If the fuel cell is powered with pure hydrogen, it has the potential to be up to percent efficient. That is, it converts 80 percent of the energy content of the hydrogen into electrical energy.
But, as we learned in the previous section, hydrogen is difficult to store in a car. When we add a reformer to convert methanol to hydrogen, the overall efficiency drops to about 30 to 40 percent.
We still need to convert the electrical energy into mechanical work. This is accomplished by the electric motor and inverter. So we have 30to percent efficiency at converting methanol to electricity, and percent efficiency converting electricity to mechanical power.
A cell phone, for example, needs about watts. The first use will be in sensors for the military. The prototype micro fuel cell uses an electrochemical process to directly convert energy from hydrogen into electricity. The fuel cell works like a battery, using an anode and cathode, positive and negative electrodes solid electrical conductors , with an electrolyte.
The electrolyte can be made of various materials or solutions. The hydrogen flows into the anode and the molecules are split into protons and electrons.
The protons flow through the electrolyte, while the electrons take a different path, creating an electrical current. At the other end of the fuel cell, oxygen is pulled in from the air and flows into the cathode. The hydrogen protons and electrons reunite in the cathode and chemically bond with the oxygen atoms to form water molecules.
Theoretically, the only waste product produced by a fuel cell is water. Fuel cells that extract hydrogen from natural gas or another hydrocarbon will emit some carbon dioxide as a byproduct, but in much smaller amounts than those produced by traditional energy source.
The efficiency of a gasoline-powered car is surprisingly low. All of the heat that comes out as exhaust or goes into the radiator is wasted energy. The engine also uses a lot of energy turning the various pumps, fans and generators that keep it going.
So the overall efficiency of an automotive gas engine is about 20 percent. That is, only about 20 percent of the thermal-energy content of the gasoline is converted into mechanical work. Battery-Powered Electric Car: This type of car has a fairly high efficiency. This gives an overall efficiency of about 72 percent. But that is not the whole story. The electricity used to power the car had to be generated somewhere. If it was generated at a power plant that used a combustion process rather than nuclear, hydroelectric, solar or wind , then only about 40 percent of the fuel required by the power plant was converted into electricity.
The process of charging the car requires the conversion of alternating current AC power to direct current DC power. This process has an efficiency of about 90 percent. So, if we look at the whole cycle, the efficiency of an electric car is 72 percent for the car, 40 percent for the power plant and 90 percent for charging the car. That gives an overall efficiency of 26 percent.
The overall efficiency varies considerably depending on what sort of power plant is used. If the electricity for the car is generated by a hydroelectric plant for instance, then it is basically free we didn't burn any fuel to generate it , and the efficiency of the electric car is about 65 percent.
Maybe you are surprised by how close these three technologies are. This exercise points out the importance of considering the whole system, not just the car.
We could even go a step further and ask what the efficiency of producing gasoline, methanol or coal is.
Efficiency is not the only consideration, however. People will not drive a car just because it is the most efficient if it makes them change their behavior. They are concerned about many other issues as well. They want to know: Is the car quick and easy to refuel? Can it travel a good distance before refueling?
Is it as fast as the other cars on the road? How much pollution does it produce?
Fuel cell cars are a long way off: Hybrid cars already exist as commercial products and are available to cut pollution now. On the other hand, fuel-cell cars are expected on the same schedule as NASA's manned trip to Mars—and have about the same level of likelihood.
Hydrogen fuel cells cost more: Hydrogen fuel cells in vehicles are about twice as efficient as internal-combustion engines; however, hydrogen fuel cell costs are nearly times as much per unit of power produced. Hydrogen fuel cells are dirtier: Hydrogen fuel is harder to transport: Moving large volumes of hydrogen gas requires compressing it.
Hydrogen compression rates mean that 15 trucks are required to power the same number of cars that could be served by a single gasoline tanker. Liquid hydrogen would require less about three trucks , but would require substantially more effort and energy to liquefy. Hydrogen is much more dangerous: And hydrogen burns invisibly. I could not find much information on this type of vessel, so it was a bit of: Probably not the best way to approach a project of this size, but I had very few alternatives, as I just wanted to get on with it.
If I messed it up, then it would go in the scrap bin, but I wanted to see if I could make something worthwhile from this idea of a working crane barge. Getting started There are of course many full size examples of these barges in use today around the globe. Some are able to lift just a few tons, but there are much bigger versions that can lift thousands of tons.
This example is a 20 ton lift version, quite small really, but typical of this type of barge in use today. I had drawn up a list of some of the things that I thought could be accommodated in this project.
Starting off with the all important large flat deck, a big winch, a pump or generator and the very large crane were of course essential. I had built a working crane before which was installed on my dredger.
This worked well but had been a lot of work due mainly to its small size, but this time I was lucky that before I actually started building this much larger crane, I came across a model of a large radio controlled tracked crane at a model engineering show.
I thought it was cheap as it had also been reduced in price, so I bought it. I considered that if I was just able to use the radio gear and winches then I was saving myself a lot of time and expense. However all the under parts had to be cut away just to remove the tracks and that involved cutting a lot of the crane structure as well. I finished up after a lot of cutting and shaping with a flat underside to the main body which could be attached to the deck on a completely new under frame.
The plastic cab and some of the other ancillary bits were removed and the many holes that I had created were made good with either plastic card or fibreglass, Photo 1. I think on later reflection it might have been easier to scrap the original crane body and make a completely new one, but hindsight is a wonderful thing!
The hull This is of a very simple plywood construction with square ends, Photo 2. It was in fact a copy of a barge I had found on the internet. I wanted my barge to be as large as possible, but I needed to be able to pick it up when completed and it also had to fit in the car as well!
The final hull size was really determined by what could be cut from an 8ft x 4ft sheet of 3mm plywood that I had in stock. Scrap cardboard was used to get the rough sizes of the sections which were carefully marked on to the ply.
With care, it was possible to cut the sides, base, ends, bottom and deck from the one sheet. There also had to be extra supports under the rear deck for the crane mounting. Once the basic hull was made, but before the top deck was fastened in place, the propshafts and the water intake pipe for the pump had to be installed before the whole of the inside was painted and sealed with fibreglass resin.
The corners of the hull inside and out and the internal frame joints were reinforced with woven mat and plenty of resin. This was just to make sure it was strong and watertight.
Weight is not a problem with this type of hull, just your ability to lift it! The inside was then painted with two coats of undercoat and the outside had the same but a top coat as well. Ballast I was intending to use large internal water tanks to ballast the hull. These would be filled and emptied using a windscreen washer pump, the fixed inlet pipe of which would have to come up over the water line because if the flexible hose connection were low down and came off or leaked, I could witness a sinking that would not be desirable!
With the pipe directed up to deck level no water should come in at all if anything like that should occur. However, the idea of having tanks filled with water by a pump was soon altered when I sought some advice from Derek Nelson of Knightcote MBC who advised against this method. I could see the sense in what he told me, so I now use old plastic milk bottles filled with pond water.
This method is easy and makes ballast positioning spot on. If you have a selection of large and small bottles, then once the trim is correct, if they are then numbered with a felt tip pen both on the bottle and in the hull, filling at the pondside and then positioning them becomes easy for future sailings. Motors and rudder At this stage before the decks were installed, I decided to utilise the motors that had driven the original crane tracks.
These, although quite small would hopefully be adequate to drive the two small propellers. On this type of vessel, high speed is not a requirement, so I hope they will do the job. Motor control is independent on the transmitter, but also of course the barge in real life would be more likely to be towed into position. The rudder is just a large fin in the centre at the rear.
Normally this would be set straight and I should imagine that with the barge ballasted and low in the water a lot of power may be required to move it. It will be interesting to see at a later date how it works out. The best of it is that if larger motors are required later, the cavernous hull should make them easy to fit.
Deck fittings and clutter If you look at photos of working examples, barges do not seem to be tidy craft and there is often a lot of clutter on the deck. By that I mean ropes, drums, chains, pipes and timber etc all over the place, Photo 4. On the deck are winches and pumps with anchor handling equipment at both ends of the barge with a main towing bridle at the bows although both ends of the hull are similar in shape. The crane of course is the main feature and is mounted aft.
On each side of the deck are bollards and plenty of tyre fenders plus the usual guard rails. At the opposite end of the deck to the crane mounting is a large heavy tubular structure for supporting the crane jib when stowed, Photo 5.
At the bow end of the barge on the port side is the crew accommodation block and engine room, on top of which is housed the small bridge with the crane controls. Enhancement to GPS to improve location accuracy to 10 cm. Optical remote vehicles in front of it and sensing technology to measure behind it and to keep distance to target by passengers and other motorists illuminating with light.
Inside the car are detect traffic, pedestrians,lane altimeters, gyroscopes, and markings and anything else that tachymeters that determine the might be in front of the vehicle. Can detect deep learning operations per sirens of approaching second. Deep learning, a branch emergency vehicles.
There is also the risk dangerous situations, like of terrorist attacks. Many autonomous car transformative implications of accidents have been recorded self-driving vehicles on cities. Shared from which includes autonomous vehicles could increase vehicles of big companies like available urban space by 15 to 20 Tesla motors Fatal accident percent, largely through the took place in Williston, Florida elimination of parking spaces. Today on 7 May while a Tesla central London has about 6. Autonomous vehicles will also make the rural communities more attractive because shared travel to nearby cities becomes widely available, affordable ,and Google Google's own and does not lead to loss of productive accident reports, their test cars time.
It are limited to autonomous vehicles. Increased use of car-sharing for local transport reduces the overall demand for vehicles which in turn reduces greenhouse gas emission for manufacturing automobiles. Because of their www. Related Papers. Google Driverless Car. Bhaskar report new. By Hemant Sharma. By Samantha Godwin. By Futurist Thomas Frey. Download pdf. Remember me on this computer.
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