René Molenaar. m akes no r epr esent at ion or war rant ies wit h respect t o t he accuracy or com plet eness of t he cont ent s of t his book and specifically. Master Subnetting? The. Ultimate Beginners Crash. Course To Subnetting & RENE. MOLENAAR PDF - 3 Sep. How to Master CCNA covers everything you. René Molenaar. makes no representation or warranties with respect to the from binary to hexadecimal there's a trick you need to master.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Dutch|
|ePub File Size:||25.51 MB|
|PDF File Size:||12.35 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Regsitration Required]|
capitalized, although René Molenaar cannot attest to the accuracy of this Enjoy reading my book and good luck mastering your binary and subnetting skills!. View Notes - how to master jinzihao.info from SECURITY at South Australia. René Molenaar. makes no representation or warranties with respect to the. is versed in subnetting, he won't waste bunch of IP IP address if he has broken that subnet in wrong way into . Rene Molenaar, “How to Master Subnetting”.
Our original class C network has now been divided in 2 subnets with a size of each. The bit on the far right side is called the least significant bit LSB because this one has the lowest value. Br oa dca st The broadcast address is being used by applicat ions and com put ers t o a dd r e ss send inform at ion t o all devices wit hin a subnet , This m eans w e can borr ow 5 m ore host - bit s t o cr eat e subnet s. Now you might think why we could care about this because we are using a private network address Welcom e t o Subnet t ing As you can see the Class A range is between 0.
Are you sure you want to Yes No. Patti Rogers , Slavena Stefanova , Network Operations Engineer. Show More. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. How to become the binary and subnetting artist 1. How to Become the Binary and Subnetting Artist www.
All rights reserved. No part of this document or the related files may be reproduced or transmitted in any form, by any means electronic, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher.
Limit of Liability and Disclaimer of Warranty: The publisher has used its best efforts in preparing this book, and the information provided herein is provided "as is. This book identifies product names and services known to be trademarks, registered trademarks, or service marks of their respective holders. They are used throughout this book in an editorial fashion only. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark, registered trademark, or service mark.
Anyone working with networks on a professional level should be able to do binary calculations if you ask me. This book will teach you how to calculate subnets and subnet masks, how to calculate the numbers of hosts available etc. And the best part: You will be able to do this off the top of your head, no need to write stuff down!
Once you have mastered the tricks in this book you will wonder why you ever had difficulty solving subnetting questions: Enjoy reading my book and good luck mastering your binary and subnetting skills! There are 10 types of people in the world: Those that understand binary, and those who don't! Binary Basics Welcome to Subnetting The beginning The Fast Way Classless Inter-Domain Routing Variable length subnet mask VLSM Hexadecimal calculations Tackling miscellaneous subnetting questions Create your own cheat sheet Final Thoughts We are all used to work with decimal numbers where we count from 1 till In the binary system, we only work with 0 or 1.
The bit on the far right side is called the least significant bit LSB because this one has the lowest value. So how do we convert decimal numbers into binary?
Let me show you an example: As you can see, whenever you add a bit, the decimal value doubles. For example: Take a piece of paper and write down the 8 bits for yourself. See if you can solve the following decimal to binary calculations: Bits 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 12 54 44 Now try to do it the other way around and calculate from binary to decimal: Welcome to Subnetting Before we start calculating subnets, the first thing we need to do is take a look at what subnets and IP addresses are.
An IP address is a numeric value that you configure on every device in a network, think about computers, laptops, servers but also networking equipment like routers, firewalls and switches. Devices within the same IP subnet are able to communicate without using a router. IP Terminology: Bit s A bit has 2 possible values, 1 or 0. Octet An octet is just like a byte 8 bits, you often see byte or octet both being used.
Network address When we talk about routing, the network address is important. Routers use the network address to send IP packets to the right destination.
Subnet A subnet is a network that you split up in multiple smaller subnetworks. Broadcast address The broadcast address is being used by applications and computers to send information to all devices within a subnet, Hierarchical IP addressing: Every byte has 8 bits. There are many ways to write down an IP address: This has some advantages, you can use a lot of IP addresses with 32 bits the biggest number you can create is 4,3 billion or to be precise 4,,, The advantage of having a hierarchical model is needed for routing, imagine that every router on the planet would need to know every IP address on the planet.
Try to compare this to phone numbers: The complete phone number is IP addresses use a similar hierarchical structure. Network addresses: The network address is a unique identification of the network. The IP address will tell you in what subnet they are located. The network address has to be the same for all the hosts, the host part has to be unique. At this moment there are 3 classes that are important to us: Multicast Class E: When we talk about broadcasts in IP world, we talk about layer3 broadcasts.
MAC addresses are used to uniquely identify a network device, for example: Layer 3 is where we talk about IP addressing, and we can also send a broadcast. For example take the Pretty neat right?
Some old applications might still use this form of communication. The first bit always has to be a 0. As you can see the Class A range is between 0. Class B: For a class B network the first bit has to be a 1.
The second bit has to be a 0. Class C: For a class C network the first bit has to be a 1, the second bit a 1 and the third a 0. Class D and E: There is also a class D for multicast traffic which starts at We are not going to use these classes for our binary calculations. A class A network has 1 byte reserved for the network address which means the other 3 bytes are left for hosts.
This means we have a couple of networks and every network can have a lot of hosts how to determine how many hosts each network has we will see later! A class B network has 2 bytes reserved for the network address which means the other 2 bytes are left for hosts. This means we have even more networks but less hosts per network compared to class A. A class C network has 3 bytes reserved for the network address which means the other byte is left for hosts.
Now we have a lot of networks but only a few hosts per network. The people who invented the IP addressing scheme decided it would be a good idea to have a range of networks that are not routable on the internet.
If every device on the planet would require a unique IP address then we would have already run out of address space by now. Instead, there are some private ranges you can use for your internal networks and these are not accessible from the internet. Now perhaps you are wondering why you are able to access the internet from your home computer? The answer to this question is that you have 1 public IP address that you got from your internet provider, and all your home computers have private IP addresses.
This way all computers can access the internet by using a single private IP address! Class A: Is it some secret rule that everyone just knows about?
The answer is no, we use something called a subnet mask! For this network, it would be the following subnet mask: IP address decimal 1 0 IP address binary Subnet mask decimal 0 Subnet mask binary The subnet mask will specify which part of the IP address is the network-part and which part is the host-part. To clarify this let me just take the binary numbers, the subnet mask tells you the first 24 bits are the network-address and the 8 bits that are left we can use for hosts.
So now we know that with 8 bits the highest value we can create is , does this mean we can have hosts in this network?
IP address 1 0 2 Broadcast address: The network address has all hosts bits set to 0! The broadcast address has all host bits set to 1! Does this mean we can have a maximum of hosts on our network?
The answer is still no! I messed with your head because the highest value you can create with 8 bits is not but Does this make your head spin?
The broadcast address has all host bits set to 1, so in decimal this is So now you have seen what a network looks like in binary, what the subnet mask does, what the network and broadcast addresses are and that we can fit in hosts in this Class C network. Is this possible? It sure is! Basically what we are doing is taking a Class C network and chop it in 2 pieces, and this is what we call subnetting.
IP address 1 0 Subnet mask 0 If we want to create more subnets we need to borrow bits from the host-part. For every bit you borrow you can double the number of subnets, by borrowing 1 bit we create 2 subnets out of this single network. There are 8 host-bits so if we steal one to create more subnets this means we have only 7 bits left for hosts. What will the new subnet mask be? The subnet mask will be Because we can use the 0 the highest value we can create with 7 bits is Our original class C network has now been divided in 2 subnets with a size of each.
So what will the network addresses of the 2 new subnets be? Subnet 1: By applying the new subnet mask we only have 7 host bits to play with. The network address has all host bits set to 0, so the network address will be: The first usable host IP address is the one that comes after the network address, so this will be: The last IP address we can use for a host is the one before the broadcast address, so this will be: The broadcast address has all host bits set to 1 so the broadcast address we get is: The first subnet ended at Let me show you another one, we take the same Class C For every host-bit we borrow we can double the number of subnets we can create, so by borrowing 2 host bits we can create 4 subnets.
Subnet mask Calculate it from binary to decimal: The new subnet mask will be By applying the new subnet mask we only have 6 host bits to play with. The second subnet ended at We just chopped down our If you understand everything up to this point…great job!
Does this look like a lot of work? Honestly…yes it is! I promise you to show you some tricks to calculate Class C,B and even A subnets without touching any binary numbers…. Exercise 2: Take the Write down the following information: The first 2 subnets. The network addresses.
The broadcast addresses. The usable host IP addresses.
The appendix of this book will show you the answers. IP address 16 0 Subnet mask 0 0 If we want to create more subnets we need to borrow bits from the host-part. Subnet mask 0 As you can see the net subnet mask will be I pr om ise you t o show you som e t ricks t o calculat e Class C,B and ev en A subnet s wit hout t ouching any binary num bers….
Ex er cise 2: Take t he Writ e down t he following inform at ion: The first 2 subnet s. The net w ork addresses. The broadcast addresses. The usable host I P addr esses. The appendix of t his book will show you t he answers. I P addr ess 16 0 Su bn e t m a sk 0 0 I f w e want t o creat e m ore subnet s we need t o bor row bit s fr om t he host - part. Su bn e t m a sk 0 As y ou can see t he net subnet m ask will be I f y ou want t o know t o know how m any usable host I P addr esses y ou have, y ou t ake — 2 because of t he net wor k and br oadcast address.
Does t his m ake sense t o y ou? My pr om ise is st ill st anding…I will show you how t o solve t hese subnet t ing quest ions wit hout t ouching any binary, you j ust need t o m ake sur e you underst and t he m at h t hat is going on first.
By applying t he new subnet m ask we only have 1 5 h ost b it s t o play wit h. Now see if y ou can solv e t hese quest ions: The first 3 subnet s.
The net w ork addresses c. The broadcast addresses d. The first 4 subnet s b. I P addr ess 10 0 0 0 Su bn e t m a sk 0 0 0 I f w e want t o creat e m ore subnet s we need t o bor row bit s fr om t he host - part. Su bn e t m a sk 0 0 As y ou can see t he net subnet m ask will be By now y ou should be fam iliar what t he m at h looks like.
By applying t he new subnet m ask we only have 1 9 h ost b it s t o play wit h. The broadcast address of Subnet 1 was The broadcast address of Subnet 2 was We can do subnet t ing j ust by working wit h decim al num bers. By t aking an ext r a bit t he decim al value doubles every t im e: Take t his We know because t he subnet m ask is The 0 is being used so t he highest value you can cr eat e is Visualize t his as a block: When w e chop t his block in 2, t his is what we get: Fr om.
Net w ork: Well we know t hat t he br oadcast address is t he last addr ess wit hin a subnet , so we can j ust writ e t hose down now we know t he net w ork addr esses: One quest ion left ; what are t he usable host I P addresses?
We j ust subnet t ed t his Class C net w ork, calculat ed t he net work address, br oadcast addr ess and t he usable host I P addr esses. Once y ou know t he rules doing ev eryt hing in decim al is m uch fast er. Ex er cise 4: Can we apply t his sam e m et hod for Class B net wor ks?
Sur e! The only difference wit h a Class C net w or k is we have m ore space because w e are now playing wit h t he 3 rd oct et. We st ill have t he sam e quest ions t o answer: The 2 subnet s. Can we apply t he sam e t rick for a Class A net w ork? Sam e quest ions, differ ent answers: That will m ake Right now you should have a good underst anding how y ou can cr eat e subnet s wit hout t ouching any binary num ber s and w or k wit h decim al only, t his m et hod is a lot fast er.
Cla ssle ss I nt e r - D om a in Rout ing Once upon a t im e when t he I P addr essing schem e was invent ed, t he people who developed t his t hought it would be enough t o have 3 differ ent classes as w e hav e seen so far, class A,B and C net work s.
Ther e w ere only 3 subnet m asks: Class A Ther e w er e only A class C w ould be t oo sm all because you only have I P addr esses, and t aking a couple of class C net w ork s is no scalable opt ion. The solut ion t o t his problem is Classless I nt er- Dom ain Rout ing, in ot her w ords w e st op wor king wit h t he classful net works and st art w orking wit h classless net wor ks. I believe t he CI DR not at ion is easier t hen w rit ing down t he com plet e subnet m ask , saves som e t im e.
Unfort unat ely on m ost operat ing syst em s and net work equipm ent you st ill have t o configure t he full subnet m ask inst ead of t he CI DR not at ion.
Now you m ight t hink why we could care about t his because we ar e using a privat e net w or k address This is t rue, t ry t o t hink about t his on a global scale wit h t he I nt ernet.
The net w ork addresses: Block size: Pit fa ll: Subnet 2: This is a block of One subnet wit h a block of Two subnet s wit h a block of One subnet t hat fit s host s. One subnet t hat fit s 31 host s.
I f y ou m ade it t his far and t ackled all t he different subnet t ing quest ions…good j ob! Sum m a r iza t ion When y ou ar e int o net w orking and rout ing in part icular, you ar e probably fam iliar wit h t he concept of sum m arizat ion. I n t he pict ure below we see 2 rout er s, rout er A has t he following net works configured: Rout er B rout ing t able: D See if you can cr eat e t he following sum m aries: Com bine t he following net work s int o a single sum m ary: Now t ry t his one: Last one: H e x a de cim a l ca lcula t ions I n t he net w or king universe y ou som et im es hav e t o calculat e from binary t o hexadecim al, or from decim al t o hexadecim al and t he ot her way around.
Mac addr esses and I Pv6 ar e a good exam ple of t his. I n t he decim al syst em we count from 1- 10, in t he hexadecim al syst em we count fr om 1 — F. Check out t his exam ple: Norm ally you see hexadecim al values writ t en as 0xFF. Ex er cise 9: Take t he decim al num ber and calculat e it int o hexadecim al 2. Take t he decim al num ber 94 and calculat e it int o hexadecim al. Take t he hexadecim al num ber 0xAD and calculat e it int o decim al.
Take t he hexadecim al num ber 0xCD and calculat e it int o decim al. Ta ck ling m isce lla ne ous subne t t in g que st ions This will be t he final chapt er, right now y ou hav e seen all t he differ ent t ools needed t o becom e a t rue binary and subnet t ing calculat ions art ist. I n t his chapt er I will show you som e of t he com m on subnet t ing quest ions you m ight encount er and how t o t ackle t hem.
The cheat sheet y ou creat ed so far is a gr eat t ool t o solve t hese k ind of quest ions. Subnet t ing Quest ion 1: You hav e t he I P address Broadcast address? Or perhaps a valid host I P address? Net w ork Subnet t ing Quest ion 2: You are given t he We hav e 32 bit s in t ot al, 28 bit s are used for t he net w ork address. This m eans we have 4 bit s left for host s. Subnet t ing Quest ion 3: For ev er y host bit we bor row w e can double t he num ber of subnet s.
I P addr ess 16 0 0 Su bn e t m a sk 0 I f y ou t ake a look at t he binary t able t his m eans you hav e 12 host bit s left t hat y ou can bor row for ext ra subnet s. Ex er cise See if you can solve t he following subnet t ing quest ions: Net work?
Usable for a host? Net w ork? So t he subnet m ask is Rem em ber t his form ula: I f you get any quest ions on subnet t ing you can see in t he blink of an ey e what t he CI DR not at ion is, t he subnet m ask and how big t he subnet size is.
Fina l Thought s Here w e are, y ou w ork ed your way t hrough all t he differ ent chapt ers t hat show ed y ou how t o solve any binary or subnet t ing quest ion. The last t hing you need t o do t o becom e a t rue binary and subnet t ing calculat ions art ist is pract ice, pract ice and ev en m or e pract ice! The easiest way t o do t his is t o w rit e down som e I P addresses and random subnet m ask s and ask y our self t he sam e quest ions I did in all of t he chapt er s.
What is t he net work address, what is t he br oadcast addr ess, how m any valid host s, what is t he CI DR not at ion and so on. You can always check y our answers by using one of t he m any subnet calculat ors y ou can find on t he int ernet.
One last w ord of advice: I f y ou do a Cisco exam you always get a t ut orial before y ou st art t he ex am which t akes 15 m inut es. These 15 m inut es ar e not wit hdrawn from y our exam t im e so t his is valuable t im e you can spend at creat ing your own cheat sheet. I f you get exam quest ions wher e y ou need t o calculat e subnet s y ou can sav e a lot of t im e by looking it up in your cheat sheet inst ead of calculat ing over and ov er again.
I hope you enj oy ed r eading m y book and t ruly learned som et hing! I f y ou have any quest ions or com m ent s about t he book please let m e k now by sending an e- m ail t o info renem olenaar. I wish you good luck pr act icing t hose binary and subnet t ing skills!
The new subnet m ask will be Because we can use t he 0 t he highest value we can cr eat e wit h 5 bit s is Our original class C net wor k has now been divided in 8 subnet s wit h a size of 32 each. So what will t he net wor k addresses of t he 8 new subnet s be?
By applying t he new subnet m ask we only have 5 h ost bit s t o play wit h. Because we can use t he 0 t he highest value we can cr eat e wit h 4 bit s is So what will t he net wor k addresses of t he 16 new subnet s be?
By applying t he new subnet m ask we only have 4 h ost bit s t o play wit h. Ex er cise 3: I P addr ess 16 0 0 Su bn e t m a sk 0 0 I f w e want t o creat e 4 subnet s we need t o borr ow bit s fr om t he host - part. For ev ery bit you bor row y ou can double t he num ber of subnet s, by borr owing 2 bit we creat e 4 subnet s out of t his single net work.
By applying t he new subnet m ask we only have 1 4 h ost b it s t o play wit h. For ev er y bit you bor row y ou can double t he num ber of subnet s, by bor rowing 7 bit s we cr eat e subnet s out of t his single net w ork. By applying t he new subnet m ask we only have 9 h ost bit s t o play wit h.
The subnet m ask is This is no problem because w e ar e using a Class B net w or k, w e j ust t ake anot her block. Wit h sum m arizat ion we go t he ot her way ar ound. Your sum m ar y addr ess will be The subnet m ask of t he sum m ary will be I f y ou want t o know t he subnet m ask: So in t his case y our sum m ary address will be For t he subnet m ask: The hexadecim al value will be 8C, also w rit t en as 0x8C.
So t he hexadecim al value will be 0x5E. Now we know t he size of t he subnet s, we can w rit e t hem down: Now we can w rit e down t he subnet s: