pathology mnemonics for medical students, doctors and nursing students all over jinzihao.info mnemonics will help you to prepare for your medical school. This is a list of pathology mnemonics, categorized and alphabetized. For mnemonics in other . Print/export. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. Medical Mnemonics. A politically correct, non-inclusive approach to remembering things you might otherwise forget in med school. Joel G Ray, MD MSc FRCPC.
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This book on mnemonics has been writen in view of problems faced by Multiple myeloma Pathology 91 A—Adenocarcinoma P—Pancreas. Mnemonic fits nicely since median nerve is trapped. Knowledge Level 4 .. Note mnemonic sentence is nasally-related. Down syndrome pathology. Hi Yield. increase/ Dyspnea Osteopathy Skin (Subcutaneous jinzihao.infoogy Mnemonics Paget's disease of bone: signs and symptoms Four L's: Larger hat size Loss.
Mark Suarrez. N eurological symptoms F ever R enal failure M icroangiopathic hemolytic anemia T hrombocytopenia Hemophilia: Mid day minimum At high heart rates: M edullary thyroid carcinoma M edulla of adrenal pheochromocytoma M ucosal neuroma. SOAP Note:
CLP Also remember: Vitamins B and C Mnemonic: WBC Vit. Synovial fluid Loose connective tissue Cartilage Bone Cornea Mnemonic: CBC Karatan sulphate: Mast cells Heparan sulphate: Aortic wall Skin fibroblasts Dermatan sulphate: Ox in spa Fumarate forming amino acids—Phenylalanine, tyrosine Mnemonic: PheTyr fumes Succinyl CoA: Threonine, valine, isoleucine, methionine Mnemonic: Proline, histidine, arginine, glutamine Mnemonic: Cystine, threonine, glycine, alanine, serine Mnemonic: Leucine, isoleucine, lysine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine Mnemonic: Lesch-Nyhan syndrome Mnemonic: Histry Phe Tyr Gala Milo Aspartic acid—Hb bristol Mnemonic: Brass Alanine—Hb sydney Mnemonic: BB no.
PFK 2 is bifunctional 2 is bi. It is required in: Ribonuclease In Papaver somniferum, the opium poppy, tyrosine is used to produce the alkaloid morphine. Sense codon to change into nonsense stop codon, causing premature termination of translation.
Missense mutation: Change of one sense codon into another sense codon, for different amino acids Mnemonic: Different Miss Silent mutation: Change of one sense codon into another sense codon for same amino acids Mnemonic: S for S Null mutation: Leads to no functional gene product complete loss of function Loss of function mutation: Results of gene product having less or no function.
Gain of function mutation: Change the gene product such that it gains a new and abnormal function. Neutral mutation: Different but chemically similar amino acid. It is extracellular and its function is to bind insulin. It is a transmembrane protein and its function is signal transduction. The cytoplasmic portion of subunit has tyrosine kinase activity enzymatic receptor. These reactions are catalyzed by — Hexokinase—glucokinase glucose to glucose 6-phosphate — Phosphofructokinase fructose 6 phosphate to fructose 1, 6-bisphosphate — Pyruvate kinase phosphoenol pyruvate to pyruvic acid To remember: All three are kinases.
One involves glucose, another fructose and third one pyruvate. Protein degeneration in lysosomes—involves lysosomal proteins.
This process does not involve ATP. Protein degradation in proteosomes—involves ubiquitin- proteosome pathway. This process requires ATP, i. ATP dependent. Enterokinase Calcium Trypsin itself Mnemonic: ECT Inhibitors: HU Topoisomerase—Relieves torsional strain that results from helicase induced unwinding.
T for T K Mnemonic: Mid day minimum At high heart rates: PCS is insensitive Also remember: Vasomotor center VMC Excitatory: Cortex Pain pathway Carotid and aortic chemoreceptors Direct stimulators: CO2 Hypoxia The ventral tract enters into the cerebellum through superior cerebellar peduncle.
Dorsal respiratory group DRG , located in the dorsal portion of the medulla, which mainly causes inspiration Mnemonic: Din Ventral respiratory group VRG located in the ventrolateral part of the medulla, which mainly causes expiration.
T for T Muscle spindle—detects muscle length—stretch reflex Mnemonic: S for S Neocerebellum—planning and programming Motor functions of skeletal muscles derived from somites: Supplies extraocular muscles XII Hypoglossal nucleus: Supplies tongue muscles Mnemonic: Fer pin Pain Transmembrane sarcolemmal proteins Dystroglycans, integrins, sarcoglycans and caveolin Mnemonic: DCM-Dorsal column cross over in medulla Sensations transmitted by spinothalamic tract Anterior spinothalamic tract Mnemonic: PLT Note: The spinothalamic tract crosses more or less at point of entry itself such that it remains contralateral along the whole length of spinal cord.
Opening batsman Eyes closed Alpha waves D Mnemonic: Major estrogen in postmenopausal women Mnemonic: NM Estradiol: Major and most potent estrogen in women Estriol: Major estrogen in pregnancy, marker for fetoplacental unit.
Upper motor neuron lesion corticospinal pyramidal system involved Mnemonic: Up in Spa Lead pipe and cogwheel rigidity occurs in extrapyramidal syndrome, e.
FG Cerebrovascular disease. Thoracolumbar outflow Mnemonic: SLT Parasympathetic outflow: Craniosacral outflow Mnemonic: PCS Ovulation—hormone picture High estrogen Low progesterone Mnemonic: Sweat gland—secretion of sweat.
Vasodilatation in skeletal muscles—a part of the neurons to blood vessels in skeletal muscles is anatomically sympathetic but secrete acetylcholine. Stimulation of this system of neurons produces vasodilatation in skeletal muscles. Presence of peptides and amino acids in contact with mucosa of small intestine. Presence in the duodenum of fatty acids having more than 10 carbon atoms.
Stimulus for secretin secretion: Acidity of chyme b. NREM sleep disorders: Sleep walking somnambulism Penile tumescence is seen in REM sleep. T3 has faster onset of action. T3 binds more avidly to nuclear receptors.
T4 is more secreted by thyroid. T4 is major circulating hormone. T4 binds more avidly to plasma proteins 15 times. Potassium Phosphate organic Protein Magnesium Mnemonic: Erlotinib reversible Canertinib Irreversible Gefitinib Mnemonic: Cell cycle specific G2 phase specific: DEBT S-phase specific agent: Vinca alkaloids Paclitaxel and Docetaxel G1 phase: Pharmacology 37 Oxazepam Lorazepam Alprazolam Mnemonic: Acid labile Penicillin V: Acid stable Mnemonic: IVF Mnemonics38 Note: Ketoconazole is both topical and systemic.
Tacrolimus versus cyclosporine Tacrolimus causes more Neurotoxicity Nephrotoxicity Diabetes mellitus Diarrhoea Mnemonic: Glucagon, somatostatin delta cells Pituitary: PTH Parafollicullar C cells of thyroid: Calcitonin Posterior pituitary: Asli Glu Also Remember: Efavirenz Etravirine Nevirapine Delaviridine Mnemonic: Hepatomegaly with steatosis Mnemonic: Arab Gem inhibit elongation Muscimol Antagonist: Bicuculline Agonist: Baclofen B for B Antagonist: GB Mnemonic: May precipitate absence status when used with clonazepam.
Nice guidelines Cyclosporine calcineurin inhibitor Azathioprine anti-proliferative agent Prednisolone corticosteroid Mnemonic: CAP Note: Azathioprine may be replaced by mycofenolate mofetil. Mnemonics44 Peripheral neuropathy Myocardial depression Pulmonary alveolitis and fibrosis lung —dry cough Corneal microdeposits Liver toxicity Photosensitization Mnemonic: Petro Grenal Note: Pharmacology 45 Clarithromycin Azithromycin Rifabutin Mnemonic: CML Note: Not in iron and cadmium poisoning Mnemonic: Not in mercury poison Mnemonic: ENM Penicillamine: Not in iron poisoning Mnemonic: Teratogenicity Amphotericin B Hamycin Nystatin Polypeptides: Polymyxin Colistin Mnemonic: Fluoroquinolones Mnemonic: Aminoglycoside Mn: Pharmacology 47 Clindamycin 50S Mnemonic: Enzyme inducers: Phenytoin, phenobarbitone primidone, carbamazepine, rifampicin, griseofulvin.
Mnemonics48 Isoprenaline: D1 receptors in renal and mesenteric blood vessels are very sensitive IV infusion of low doses of DA dilates mesenteric vessels and improves renal perfusion. Ameliorative test: Edrophonium anti-cholinesterase b. Phenoxybenzamine is the agent of choice. MICE Most marked kaliuresis: Acetazolamide Mnemonic: AK Most marked natriuresis: Furosemide Mnemonic: SOAP Note: CTZ Chemoreceptor trigger zone is also outside blood—brain barrier and responsible for vomiting.
They can cause SLE. Sympathetic nerve fibres going to sweat glands release acetylcholine sympathetic cholinergic Mnemonic: HR Conduction—Dromotropic Mnemonic: Vesamichol—inhibits entry of acetylcholine in the vesicle Botulinum toxin—inhibits release of acetylcholine. P for P Bethanichol acts on Bladder M3 —contracts urinary bladder in urinary retention.
B for B Methacholine acts on Myocardium M2 —used in tachyarrhy- thmia. Carbachol action—Common action—acts both on nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. C for C Oximes are used only for organophosphorous poisoning. Ciliary muscle contracts to cause accommodation.
Its nerve supply is short ciliary nerve—branch of oculomotor nerve 3rd cranial nerve. So, it is a part of parasympathetic system. That is why anticholinergic drugs cause cycloplegia by blocking ciliary muscle contraction and causing loss of accommodation. Anticholinergic drugs are— Atropine—strongest cycloplegic drug. Very long acting. Used for refraction testing in children.
Homatropine Cyclopentolate Tropicamide Shortest acting. Preferred in adults. SOFT bladder Heart Mnemonic: Lungs Mnemonic: Vasodilatation Mnemonic: Circular muscles—Constrictor pupillae—supplied by short ciliary nerve—active miosis—parasympathomimetic.
Radial muscles—dilator pupillae—supplied by long ciliary nerve—active mydriasis—sympathomimetics. Mnemonics54 Salmetrol Formetrol Mnemonic: Metro is long acting. B for blood vessels Note: NO release—Nebivolol. Loop looses calcium. It causes hypocalcemia. Digitoxin—contraindicated in hepatic failure. Toxin is metabolized in liver Pharmacology 57 Remikiren Enalkiren Mnemonic: Depines are calcium channel blockers.
Angiotensin receptor blockers also follow these except first 3 CAP. Sartans are selective AT1 receptor antagonist. Longest name Shortest acting nitrate—AN Mnemonic: I—Sodium channel blockers II—Beta blockers They can cause Torased des pointes.
Short acting BZD are—safe in elderly, liver disease, no hangover and no active metabolite. Vigabatrin is the drug of choice for infantile spasm with tuberous sclerosis. ACTH is drug of choice for infantile spasm. Migraine prophylaxis Obesity Smoking Alcohol addiction Mnemonic: Pharmacology 61 Note: Cefa Exception: Cefaclor is 2nd generation. Vancomycin and aminoglycosides cause irreversible ototoxicity. S affects Skeletal muscle Note: Maximum hearing loss—Amikacin Mnemonic: P for P Methotrexate—Anticancer Mnemonic: Monthly dose are supervised.
Paucibacillary leprosy—Treatment -???? Flue can treat cry Note: Fluconazole is also the DOC for prophylaxis of febrile neutropenia in immunosuppressants.
Mnemonics68 Propranolol Prednisolone Mnemonic: Vitamin D decreases both while calcitonin increases both. Doloxifen and Toremifen has similar action. Raloxifen—only unfavorable action is thromboembolism. Induction agent of choice in children. Gram-positive Impaired permeability: Gram-negative Mnemonic: Beta both PBP: Serotype 2 Mnemonic: Serotype 2 is more dangerous than other serotypes.
Microbiology 73 Clostridium botulinum Corynebacterium diphtheriae Mnemonic: Herpesvirus Yellow fever virus Mnemonic: HAY Cowdry type B: Adenovirus Poliovirus Mnemonic: Mnemonics74 Taenia solium both definitive and intermediate host Toxoplasma gondii Sarcocystis lindemanii Mnemonic: Entamoeba histolytica Giardia lamblial Hymenolepis nana Mnemonic: Strong Cycle of adults Only Children: Ancylostoma duodenale Isospora belli Cryptosporidium Mnemonic: Prozone or zone of antibody excess Peak—zone of equivalence Descending part—post zone or zone of antigen excess Mnemonic: Strong Heman cryptically enters Philippines for Taenia solium auto infection.
Strongyloides stercoralis Hymenolepis nana Cryptosporidium parvum Enterobius vermicularis Ancylostoma duodenale Enterobius vermicularis Wuchereria bancrofti Mnemonic: Duodenum bans entry and multiplication Also remember Worms that crawl out Enterobius vermicularis T. Mnemonics76 Legionella Mnemonic: Enrichment media are produced by adding selective substances to liquid media. Enriched media are basal media enriched with blood, serum or egg. Polymixin, Phage 4 Mnemonic: Polyphagic class Eltor: Infant attaches ad for epidemic in Patho.
Enterotoxigenic E. Microbiology 77 Enteroaggregated E. Aggregate persists Enteroinvasive resembles shigellosis Detected by Sereny tests, penetration of the Hela and Hep2 cells. Three Rs Rat, Rice, Rainfield. Bejel Mnemonic: Bend Pertunae: Yaws Mnemonic: Ytune Caratium: Pinta Mnemonic: Endemic blinding trachoma Serotype D—K: Inclusion conjunctivitis, genital chlamydiasis, Infant pneumonia Mnemonic: Lymphogranuloma venereum Mnemonic: IgM and IgG Mnemonic: Mahatma Gandhi Classical Alternate complement activation: IgA Mnemonic: A for A Ig present in milk: IgA and IgG Mnemonic: Antigen Paratope: Mnemonics78 Pseudomonas toxin Diphtheria toxin Mnemonic: Antiprotein ships dip p-pilli are pyelonephritis associated pilli that are found on uropathic strains of E.
Pneumococcus Bacillus Haemophilus Mnemonic: DIG Conjugation actual physical contact: Episomes and plasmids for resistance. Malpighian corpuscle in white pulp periarterial Lymph node: These are collected from various offline and online sources including text books.
Secondary granules of neutrophils: Contents "Second L.
Type 3 hypersensitivity reaction: F amily history R unning exercise A diposity obesity M arlboros tobacco I nsulin resistance diabetes N on-regulated lipids dyslipidaemia G eorgie Pie high fat diet H ypertension A ge M ale Macrocytosis: A lcohol L iver disease P regnancy H emaolysis especially chronic A gglutination N eoplasia including myelodysplasia E ndocrine hypothyroidism R eticulocytes D rugs especially myelosuppressives like chemotherapy, anti-HIV meds Osteomyelitis: O ligomenorrhea H irsutism I nfertility O besity Microcytic anemia: F e deficiency T halassemia S ideroblastic C hronic disease Hirsutism vs.
H air on body like a male. V irilism: V oice and rest of secondary sexual characteristics like a male. Megaloblastic anemia: N eurological symptoms F ever R enal failure M icroangiopathic hemolytic anemia T hrombocytopenia Hemophilia: Thyroid carcinoma: In order of most frequent to least frequent, and in order from least aggressive to most aggressive: P apillary carcinoma F ollicular carcinoma M edullary thyroid carcinoma A naplastic carcinoma Pneumothorax: T oxemia of pregnancy E mboli amniotic A brutio placentae R etain fetus products Leukemias: A cute is: M iosis A nhidrosis P tosis Pericarditis: Predisposing factors.
Edwards' syndrome: E ighteen trisomy D igit overlapping flexion W ide head A bsent intellect mentally retarded R ocker-bottom feet D iseased heart S mall lower jaw Fragile X syndrome: CHA gas' disease 1 treatment: TIBC finding to differentiate iron deficiency vs. Colon cancer: Macrocytic anaemia: F etus pregnancy A lcohol T hyroid disease ie hypothyroidism R eticulocytosis B 12 and folate deficiency C irrhosis and chronic liver disease MI: H ypercellular or normal marrow S plenomegaly R esponse to splenectomy C ytopenias Whipple's disease: W eight loss H yperpigmentation of skin I nfection with tropheryma whippelii P AS positive granules in macrophage P olyarthritis L ymphadenopathy E nteric involvement S teatorrhea Pick's disease: A cetabuli protrusio D ecresed bone density U nder mineralization of osteoid L ooser's zone pseudofracture T riradiate pelvis females Anemia normocytic: A cute blood loss B one marrow failure C hronic disease D estruction hemolysis Phaeochromocytoma: P latelet count low A nemia microangiopathic hemolytic R enal failure T emperature rise N eurological deficits ER admission as it is an emergency Pancreatitis: B iliary: Fragile-X syndrome: D iscontinued chromosome staining S hows anticipation M ale male more affected M ental retardation 2nd most common genetic cause M acrognathia M acroorchidism Endometrial carcinoma: F ever E ye: S kin manifestations: A scites B leeding haematemesis, piles C aput medusae D iminished liver E nlarged spleen Alzheimer's disease: Melanoma vs.
Hepatocellular carcinoma: Ovarian cancers: K rukenberg Kwashiorkor: S ickle cell H eriditary splenocytosis E nzyme deficiencies: C onfusion A taxia N ystagmus Wernicke-Korsakoff's psychosis: C onfusion O phthalmoplegia A taxia T hiamine tx.
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia MEN subtype classification Each subtype has 2 or 3 causes, plus something 1 or 2 more items.
MEN I is disease of 3 P's: Takayasu's disease known as Pulseless disease, since pulse is weakened in the upper extremities. C hronic ulcerative colitis R atio of animal fat: C onjunctivitis non-exudative R ash polymorphous non-vesicular E dema or erythema of hands or feet A denopathy cervical, often unilateral M ucosal involvement erythema or fissures or crusting To have Kawasaki disease you must have fever for greater than 5 days plus 4 of the above.
Fat embolism: Histiocytosis X: Tennis rackets under electron microscope is Histiocystosis X. Consider 2 tennis rackets in an X formation. Pulmonary fibrosis: S ystemic sclerosis C ryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis A sbestosis R adiation Gout vs. Pulmonary embolism: B loody urine B ilateral pain [vs. B oys B lacks B lood pressure high Barter's syndrome: Thyrotoxicosis syndrome: Carcinoid syndrome: D igitalis L eydig cell tumors A lcohol S ertoli cell tumors Pick's disease: Multiple sclerosis MS: N asophayngeal A denocarcinoma S quamous cell carcinoma O lfactory neuroblastoma P lasmacytoma Acute ischemia: A symptomatic B: P eripheral P olygonal P ruritus P urple Hypertension: C irrhosis C arcinoma C ardiac failure Rarer are 3 C's: C holestasis C ysts C ellular infiltration MI: Dandy-Walker syndrome: D ilated 4th ventricle W ater on the brain S mall vermis Cerebral palsy: H ippel- L indau, with H and L as above.
Bronchial obstruction: H ypertension E mbolism A nemia R heumatic heart disease T hyrotoxicosis incl. A cute tubular necrosis V ascular obstruction I nfection D iffuse intravascular coagulation G lomerular disease U rinary obstruction T ubulointerstitial nephritis Multiple endocrine neoplasia III: M edullary thyroid carcinoma M edulla of adrenal pheochromocytoma M ucosal neuroma Ulcerative colitis: V ascular trauma I ncreased coagulability R educed blood flow stasis Pyrogenic meningitis: O bese V irilism or hirsutism A menorrhoea R eproductive problem [infertile] Y oung woman Parkinson's disease: Kawasaki disease: Usually young children, epidemic in Japan: Japanese child rides the motorcycle.
Conjunctival, oral erythema: Erythema of palms, soles: Generalized rash: Cervical lymphadenitis: Vasculitis of arteries: Treat with aspirin: Interstitial lung disease: She's an odd chick: M etabolism imbalance. D ystrophic: D amaged tissue. Iron man: S wimming: S kin pigmentation B iking: B ronze diabetes M arathon: M icronodular pigment cirrhosis COPD: Lung cancer: M yoglobinuria C ramping after exercise A ccumulated glycogen R ecessive inheritance D eficiency of muscle phosphorylase L actate levels fail to rise E levated creatine kinase S keletal muscle only Respiratory distress syndrome in infants: P rematurity C esarean section D iabetic mother Deep venous thrombosis: Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein.
Thyroid storm more common in females. Schimidt syndrome when other endocrinology disorders accompany Hashimoto's disease and "Hitler cells" Hurthle cells, which are follicular epithelial cells with basophilic inculsions Pheochromocytoma: P alpitations H eadache E disodic sweating diaphoresis Necrosis: Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Paget's disease of bone: L arger hat size L oss of hearing: Post a Comment.
Join My Facebook Page. Suggest your favorite medical site to help others. Download books from shared sites. Pathology Mnemonics Collection for Students. Alkaline phosphatase. Plasminogen activator. Phospholipase A2. Nephritic syndrome: Read as 'Sharpen'. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Arthus reaction. Reactive arthritis. Systemic vasculitis causing granulomas. Giant cell arteritis.