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The Architectural Drawing Course - Download as PDF File .pdf) or read online. ARCHITECTURAL Drawing Course - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. desen pentru arhitecti. 1. ARCHITECTURE COMPOSITION AND DRAWING TECHNIQUES. ARCHITECTURE COMPOSITION AND DRAWING TECHNIQUES.
As you develop your drawing skills. There are a number of sketching techniques that can be used to create tonal values. It employs random rounded lines that numerously overlap to create a tonal value. Instead of measuring the earth geo as a flat plane, we are proposing architectural drawing which measures the movement cine of architecture in the stream of life. That is.
Pens have a consistent stainless steel tip and ink flow and therefore maintain their line consistency and type throughout the length of the line.
Sharpen your pencil often. Draw each line continuously from one side of the paper to the other. Keep the lines straight and parallel. Using two materials can distinguish between existing and new. Architects should be conscious of the impact of their design ideas on a site. Typical modeling materials Models do not have to be made from a single material. In essence. Learning to see: Look ahead to where the line will end and try to make each line straight and of a consistent line weight.
UNIT 5: Models as representations Assignments Each chapter includes a number of project assignments that provide opportunities for you to test your skills and challenge your creative thinking. The lack of a strong section cut and other line weights renders this section illegible.
The line. In the previous section. The number of pens available in both digital output and as individual drawing instruments offers a large variety of line weights with which to draw. The following images demonstrate a full-scale mock-up of the Northeastern University Veterans Memorial. These two images depict transparency studies of the same architectural project through the use of a digital model below and a physical model left. Smaller-scale representations can be limiting in presenting the full considerations of the design project.
The units in this section define the basic concepts. Knowledge of the fundamental architectural language is necessary for clear communication of architectural ideas. You will learn about architectural representation. It is divided into a series of units that describe in detail architectural drawing types and representation methods while establishing the fundamental architectural language necessary for future success in the profession.
Preparation for the profession begins with the introduction to each communication tool. Some would question the ability of architects to create something artistic C Architecture or building? Z The studio environment Students work best in a studio environment. You should define architecture for yourself—now. The studio course In architecture school. It is a form of visual communication. In many instances.
Brian Michael Graves: Ian and Henmi. Contrary to a common myth. Therefore it is also necessary to motivate and exercise the creative mind while learning the skills to craft drawings. This unit focuses on the art of drawing. It serves to provide visual representations for the discussion and understanding of design ideas and intentions. In reality.
Technical or architectural drawing operates under an established set of conventions and rules. These methods of representation require careful thought and articulation. X Representation breakdown Digital programs provide an additional method of generating architectural representations—but manual representation will always be a valuable. Drawing transposes three-dimensional images.
Rod Envisioning Architecture: Just as a common set of codes and symbols allows us to communicate verbally with one another. Though some people seem to have a natural inclination for drawing. These five points included the piloti. His Five Points of Architecture challenged previous methodologies of designing. This approach to architecture was formalized in many of his residential designs. He is not only credited with designing some of the most important buildings of the 20th century. The other sketchbook is ideal for working out ideas regarding your own projects and collecting images for your image folder.
His paintings and sculptures were equally renowned and respected. UNIT 2: Representation and drawing It is the place to record ideas. Charcoal drawings such as the one shown on the left can capture the mood of a space while line drawings such as this sectional perspective. A dramatic effect can be reinforced by placing the vantage point lower on the page. Wright later designed a series of houses. C Ideology The exaggerated low viewpoint in this Russian Constructivist perspective drawing reinforces a political ideology as well as an architectural one.
This lowered viewpoint. You should be aware that every line you construct is part of the decision-making process. These representations can have meaning beyond a purely functional one of displaying the project.
By asking the questions. What is the design idea that needs to be narrated through the representations? What types of drawings best convey those architectural ideas? Intentions that support architectural ideas can also be conveyed through an editing process.
When making considerations about a drawing. This intention—the methodology and choices behind the representation— has the potential to create a more meaningful connection between project depictions and the architectural idea. They record ideas. His early houses. His buildings are characterized by flowing spaces and a rich palette of natural materials such as brick. The model you create will be a representation of this interpretation.
This is your first of many spatial exercises. Try to give form to your visualization. This is solely about your interpretation of the assignment. Make a representation of your home. You can and should interpret this place through the act of making. Think about the spatial relationships created between walls.
You will be thinking through the act of doing. Two finished representations above and right. Without the use of tools or glue no scissors. Try to capture the essence of the space. The volumetric representation on the right is more abstract than the model above. You need not be literal in your representation. UNIT 3: Representational intention This assignment is meant to get you interpreting and making at the same time.
Drawing techniques have different associated intentions. Notice the medium of sketching. A successful drawing is one that clearly conveys intentions and ideas. Architectural language. Attach a copy of the original sketch into your sketchbook adjacent to your own sketch. CLine and rendering The rendering of this Frank Lloyd Wright drawing emphasizes the form and mass of the building. Do not trace the sketch. Reproduce the renderings by hand in your sketchbook by copying the method of sketching.
The study of these drawings provides you with insight into the mind. Find two sketches. The purpose is to replicate the sketching technique used by the artist.
Sketches to study: Architects Louis I. Examine the technique of sketching while you copy the work. A good drawing must be beautiful. Profile lines in conjunction with hatching patterns clearly define the edges of the figure.
During the drawing process. Very clearly conceived This editing process allows the artist to emphasize a particular aspect of the view or design. It does not have to be rendered in an artistic. CZ Sketching with lines Lines vary greatly among sketches. Transparency and contours provide objects with form and shape in these drawings by Michaelangelo left and Rembrandt above.
The energy and orientation of the linework reinforces the character and quality of the space. Perspective and axonometric are examples of three-dimensional drawing types. Any of these drawing types can be constructed as hardline drawings or as freehand drawings. V Multiple sections Multiple sections depict the changing conditions of the light in the space.
Drawings that overlap or combine linework with photographs. Two-dimensional drawings. The spatial continuity of the bathhouse design with the adjoining park pathway system is depicted in this collaged image.
C Site collage Constructed perspective drawings can be combined with exisiting images through collage techniques. The darkest areas depict the deepest parts of the poche. Each section captures a wall elevation showing the changing nature of the poche or thickened service zone. They employ a variety of different drawing types. The blue additionally indicates a subtractive move. V Exploded axon Details of construction and material patterns are exposed in this exploded axon.
In the perspective.
Abstract figures provide scale in both images while the blue coloration provides another reading of scale when considered from the exterior right. The interior perspective left abstracts glazing as a blue film. Repetitive material patterns are grouped and pulled apart to demonstrate the parts relative to the working of the whole. C Perspective rendering The graphite-rendered drawing showcases material transparencies and light qualities in spaces.
C Finding scale Interior and exterior perspectives can be linked through colors indicating the same spaces viewed from different vantage points.
UNIT 4: Types of drawing The scaled numbers are already indicated on the measurement line. Architectural language On some scale rulers.
Along this line of measurements. Other scale rules are a more conventional flat format. The appropriate scale is used to take measurements from the drawing in metres or parts thereof. ZV Scale and level of information The type and amount of information conveyed by a drawing depends on its scale.
Specialist rulers are available to read measurements in meters from old imperial scales. A drawing at 1: They generally have two scales on each edge. Most use increments of one millimetre to create a wide range of scales. Each scale is indicated as a ratio at the far edges of the measurement increments. Note that the numbers on each scale correspond to a complementary set of scales.
Using an architectural scale Metric The triangular scale rule. For instance. Include the source of each image. By recording this data.
These images will be a resource and inspiration for your own designs. Build a folder of images of spaces. Being familiar with contemporary and historic representations allows you to learn from past examples and develop a visual library of precedents. Use the following representation categories as a guide to help you maintain a variety of drawing examples: Professionals create their own image folders in a variety of ways.
Keep your images in a clearly organized binder or in your sketchbook. In developing your image folder. The Internet. It is important that you expand your knowledge of representational methods. Website books and magazines. Try to boil it down to a single idea. By seeing what others have done before you. Take images from In all. Images of interest might range from conceptual to finished drawings.
ZV Captured images It is important to become familiar with precedents in architecture. Model practicalities Questions to ask yourself: As in drawing. Architects can also edit the information in a model. Because of their abstract nature. If material distinction is necessary. These models can also inform the design process. The model is used as an abstract representation of the space and form of the building. Drawings are typically constructed on two-dimensional surfaces.
The context provides a comparative element to judge your own building against. In comparison to drawings. Z Parasitic design Material distinction establishes clarity between existing and new elements. The angle and form of the exterior columnar system is carried through in the depth.
By enlarging the depth of the model base. This design intervention is constructed of basswood and inserted into a model of chipboard and corrugated cardboard to represent the existing building. As in drawings.
Z Site connection The exaggerated base of this model of the Newton Library by Patkau Architects emphasizes the connection between the building and the site. They allow you to understand the tectonics of the building and how components join together. Is it the property line. Abstract models of this nature force you to become familiar with actual construction techniques.
This means that once these models have been built. The study model is a type of model meant for the assessment of ideas. These models can be manipulated and remade quickly. They provide opportunities for discovery, inspiration, and investigation.
You should consider these types of models as developmental and not final renditions of the idea; they are part of the iterative design process. Therefore, you should feel comfortable manipulating and molding these models. This series of models depicts a threedimensional design process that enables ideas to be tested and changed in a fluid manner.
Topographic models depict the changing landscape of the site. The scale of the model determines the thickness of each contour depicted on the model. A massing model depicts the volumetric qualities of a building without much detail. Massing models are used to assess and compare the relative form and scale of a building to the adjacent building context. Contextual information is often included in these models to show how new buildings and spaces interact with the existing conditions.
Presentation models are used to show final design ideas for either your own projects or studies of other precedent examples. In the profession they are used for client and community meetings. These models are not about process but product; they are usually the most well-crafted models produced for the project.
The model on the left shows a room for repose, using hydrocal and wood. Massing models are used to explore form.
Physical vs. Physical models let you experience the building as a three-dimensional material object, allowing the design to be understood simultaneously through all of its parts and as a whole.
In essence, the designer responds to his physical connection with a handcrafted model. However, digital models can also provide opportunities to simulate travel through and into spaces, providing views that a physical model might not allow.
The digital model is more diagrammatic, emphasizing the continuity of spaces, while the physical model allows the viewer to understand the massing of the addition in basswood with greater clarity.
While the digital model also allows a type of visual immediacy through the rapid selection of views, these views are ultimately limited by the screen size and the limitations of the software interface.
The designer needs to input a command using. Using two materials can distinguish between existing and new, or between materials. Architectural mock-ups Architects should be conscious of the impact of their design ideas on a site. In some cases, architects support deeper investigations by constructing full-scale mockups to test impacts on a site, constructability, or material effect.
The scale of the Memorial Wall, along with its placement on the site, was being tested. The wall detail mock-up is typically constructed on site at full scale to test the construction techniques, color, and pattern choices relative to the context.
The relationship of the wall to the surrounding context and the relative size of the space being created were verified with a full-scale mock-up. The height of the wall was altered when tested on the site, while the location and length were found to be appropriate. The plexiglass depicts the existing house while the basswood is used to depict the house addition. Similar modes of representation techniques presented to the client.
The design process is stressed as a presentation component in academia. In this role as community liaison.
New York. The public generally wants to understand how the project might benefit their community through improved landscaping. School is one of the best places for learning and experimenting with design process representations. Design feedback is provided in this arena. The rendered plan left was presented to a design review committee. A variety of presentation-style drawings are used in the public forum.
It is not only the design that gets evaluated. In an age of greater community involvement in the design of many public and private buildings. Through representations. The monochrome plan above is a construction document. Depending on the audience to whom they are presenting ideas. Architects use these representations to convey their vision to the audience. There are three main audience groups: Be creative.
It demonstrates the qualitative aspect of the project. It delineates clearly the qualitative description including exact number. Princeton Architectural Press.
This streamlined process of production promotes effective organizational structures and helps to reduce inefficiencies of data transfer. BIM is a relatively new paradigm to the design and building industry which has the potential for creating a more seamless transition of information between architect. Some architects work simultaneously at a large scale. Case study: Presenting to clients As an architect.
Builders are well versed in architectural drawing and understand the representations made in the construction document set. This part of the design process is sometimes the least graphic and often includes interviewing user groups who will occupy the finished building.
FAR is the total building area that can be constructed on a site. These drawings are considered the instructions that convey the design intentions to the builder through detailed prescriptive drawings.
This does not limit the number of floors. This phase of work is typically generative and exploratory. C Building envelope Architects use spatial diagrams to demonstrate the possible zoning volumes based on the site FAR. Since plans and sections are typically more challenging for Construction Documents CD —full-scale mock up. Zoning issues are explored. It is difficult for some people to translate information from two-dimensional lines to three-dimensional space.
Some architecture firms specialize in helping clients establish project programs and square footage requirements. The scale and number of drawings increase during this phase.
Pre-design In this phase. The architect explores the possibilities and limitations.
CAD software and CAM systems create more functional connections between the architect and the manufacturer or fabricator. The FAR is established by zoning codes. Digital communication Digital technology is changing the ways architects and contractors communicate. For a series of zoning models for this project.
Architects often use sketches to depict these desirable changes. BIM ties three-dimensional modeling to the data information of each component part of the building. They explain the design intentions of the architect. Seeing spaces and forms is clearer with these methods. This should not limit your ideas about formal building compositions and other design aspects. UNIT 6: Who is the audience? The variety of drawing types associated with the design process in a professional architectural office is explained.
They constitute legal documents for the design project. Design Development DD —drawings. The program is the project statement that often includes specific room types and associated square footage areas. Presenting to builders and contractors Architects communicate with builders through the construction drawing document set. They are part of the legal documents that explain to the builder what the architect wants built.
This image depicts the volume of the buildable area on a given site. Other factors. Construction Administration CA —on site During the construction process the reality of site conditions. Two-dimensional representations are difficult for most untrained people to understand. Their feedback is necessary to the development of the project.
You can also research the program itself. You can analyze the site. You can start developing a conceptual idea by asking questions. Learn from precedents and apply your own design sensibilities to the knowledge you have gained. Purely functional solutions to problems often lead to the design of buildings. V Documenting thoughts Design does not occur in a vacuum.
Analyze these to understand what each might mean for the given project. When generating ideas about possible architecture solutions to a given problem. Even within a single approach there are many methodologies of generating ideas. The key to borrowing ideas in architecture is to translate them and make them your own. These ideas can then be translated into your own design.
How thick? How heavy? Ideas can be generated from other projects. Brainstorming can generate a series of ideas and sketches that lead you to other investigations. You can research the history of the building type. There are many ways to arrive at a concept.
Research is a vital component of the design process. By looking at precedent you can think about what questions the previous designer asked and answered. There are formal approaches. When trying to arrive at a conceptual idea.
Generating ideas q Too many ideas do not make a better project. Research can involve a number of possible investigation methods. Architectural language of a project. Start with what you know—program and site. Understand that ideas are not sacred.
Conceptualizing an idea Imagine being asked to design a pencil holder without any further design parameters. You can derive architectural concepts from just about anything: Then ask the question: Recorded images allow you to react visually to a concept. Recording your ideas is a vital part of the design process. How do you want the pencils to sit: What material to use? Do not limit your conceptualization process to just words or images—use both. In the iterative process of design you are ultimately trying to translate what you are saying and thinking to what you are making.
The folded plates are visible in the constructed perspective above. The process of design is one of iteration. The sectional diagram provides the main idea for the project. Folded colored planes depict the floor plates for a natatorium left. These diagrams are used to describe the various elements of one project.
Each successive iteration builds on the lessons from the previous one. The material continuity. Through an iterative process of problem solving.
Z Simplifying ideas Diagrams describe the essence of the idea. In every phase of the process. The iterative process emphasizes an exploration of several options before settling on one single manifestation of a project. Realizing intentions Diagrams help explore the circulation zones in this precedent study.
Synthesize your concepts into simple reductive drawings. It is important to analyze your own design throughout the process. UNIT 7: Concept Iterative process Once you have a conceptual idea. Secondary diagrams simplify additional supporting ideas.
Why that space? Why that location? CZ Diagramming form The continuity of the public area. The process requires you to be critical of your own work. The overlapping quality represents the conceptual idea: Tools for success Some basic tools and techniques are essential for well-crafted drawings and models.
As with any skill, technical ability comes with practice. The challenges met with the first drawing and first model will disappear with experience. Keep a sketchbook with you at all times. Use it to record things that you see around you, ideas for assignments, or anything else that inspires or interests you. Start on. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Published in: Full Name Comment goes here.
Are you sure you want to Yes No. Be the first to like this. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Operationally, computers, based on cybernetic circuits, are Brian McGrath is an architect and co-founder of urban-interface, radically transforming not only architectural drawing procedures which explores relationships between urban design, ecology and but also the human sensory-motor schema.
Thinking in circuits is multi-media.
McGrath teaches at Columbia and Parsons in New replacing perspectival picturing with its illusion of self-sufficiency, York City and Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok. Chapter 1 Framing What happens when movements are not in space and images not in our brains? Chapter 2 Immobile Cuts How can we develop an architectural drawing system from the intervals in matter-flux?
Chapter 3 Shooting What happens when we relate movement, not to privileged poses, but to any-instant-whatever? Chapter 4 Mobile Sections How can we generate architectural spaces through drawing any-instant-whatever? Chapter 5 Assembling What happens when the sensori-motor schema breaks down and perceptions no longer result in action? Chapter 6 Cybernetic Seeds How can we generate space as seeds of different worlds in the making?
Postscript Prologue to What is Possible Where to now?
This illustrated guide introduces a new drawing system not at the outset of computer-generated drawing, but well within its course of development. Computer-generated in the middle, in the course of its development, when its drawing has only recently become more than just an efficient strength is assured.
It is being recognised as a new way of conceiving architecture multi-dimensionally in space, movement and time. Cine, the root of cinema, means movement.
Metrics, as in the word geometry, means to measure. Instead of measuring the earth geo as a flat plane, we are proposing architectural drawing which measures the movement cine of architecture in the stream of life.
Cinemetrics is based within an expanded field of architecture today that includes film, contemporary cultural criticism, philosophy, science and art. Our purpose is to align architectural drawing with the emerging 21st-century paradigm of the cybernetic-organic nature of reality that is replacing the previous mechanistic view of life.