3. English language-Textbooks for foreign speakers. 4. Academic writing- Handbooks, manuals, etc. 5. Report writing-Handbooks, manuals. etc. I. Oshima, Alice. Oshima, A. & Hogue, A. () Writing academic English (3rd ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman. ELEMENTS OF A GOOD PARAGRAPH. Proper topic sentence. Pearson Longman 4th edition October 27, , pages Writing Academic English, by Alice Oshima and Ann Hogue, is the essential writing text to prepare .
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Alice Oshima, Ann Hogue-Writing Academic English ().pdf. Putri Saniatul Iklima. P. Saniatul Iklima. Contents Preface ix Acknowledgments. Text credits: See page LIbrary of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. Oshima. Alice. Writing academic English IAlice Oshima. Ann Hoguerd ed. p. Writing Academic English (Fourth Edition) - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or view Writing Academic English 3rd Edition by Alice Oshima and Ann Hogue.
In conclusion, enjoy your new plant, but do not expect it to bear fruit. The date 26 Feb. When coordinators connect two words or phrases, do not use a comma. How many paragraphs does this essay contain? February 3, at 8: Choose one of the suggested topics and write a well-organized paragraph. There is no rule about how many to use in one paragraph.
After London's Blackfriars Bridge was painted green, the number of suicides from it decreased by 34 percent. It is clear that color affects not just our moods, but our behavior as well Daniels Both of the following paragraphs break the rule of unity because they contain one or more sentences that are off the topic. Step 1 Locate and underline the topic sentence of each paragraph.
Step 2 Cross out the sentence or sentences that are off the topic. Paragraph 1 Adventure travel is the hot trend in the tourism industry.
Ordinary people are no longer content to spend their two weeks away from the office resting on a sunny beach in Florida. More and more often, they are choosing to spend their vacations rafting down wild rivers, hiking through steamy rain forests, climbing the world's highest mountains, or crossing slippery glaciers.
J People of all ages are choosing educational study tours for their vacations. Paragraph 2 DaredevW sports are also becoming popular. Young people especially are increasingly willing to risk life and limb3 while mountain biking, backcountry snowboarding, or high-speed skateboarding. Soccer is also popular in the United States now, although football is still more popular.
One of the riskiest new sports is skysurfing, in which people jump out of airplanes with boards attached to their feet. Skysurfing rivals4 skydiving and bungee jumping for the amount of thrills- and risk. Both of the following paragraphs not only have sentences that are off the topic but also discuss two or more topics. Step 1 Decide where each paragraph should be divided into two paragraphs. Underline the topic sentence of each. Step 2 Find sentence s that are off the topic and cross them out.
The question is-which language? Because the Internet grew up in the United States, the largest percentage of its content is now in English. Bill Gates, Microsoft's president, believes that English will remain valuable for a long time as a common language for international communication. He says, "Unless you read English passably well, you miss out on some of the Internet experience. That day is decades away, however, because flawless machine translation is a very tough problem.
Computer spelling checkers also exist for various languages. Software that does crudes translations already exists. It is useful if all you are trying to do is understand the general idea of something you see on your computer screen.
However, if you are trying to negotiate a contract or discuss a scientific subject where details are important, machine translation is totally useless Gates. For example, when someone offers you food or a beverage in the United States, accept it the first time it is offered.
If you say, "No, thank you" because it is polite to decline the first one or two offers in your culture, you could become very hungry and thirsty in the United States.
There, a host thinks that "no" means "no" and will usually not offer again. Meals in the United States are usually more informal than meals in other countries, and the times of meals may be different. Although North Americans are usually very direct in social matters, there are a few occasions when they are not. If a North American says, "Please drop by sometime," he mayor may not want you to visit him in his home. Your clue that this may not be a real invitation is the word "sometime.
In other areas of the United States, however, "dropping by" is a friendly, neighborly gesture. Idioms are often difficult for newcomers to understand. Coherence Another element of a good paragraph is coherence. The Latin verb cohere means "hold together. There must be no sudden jumps. Each sentence should flow smoothly into the next one. Syndicated column, Repeat key nouns. Use consistent pronouns. Use transition signals to link ideas. Arrange your ideas in logical order.
Repetition The easiest way to achieve coherence is to repeat key nouns frequently in your para- ofKe! Read the model paragraph about gold to see how it uses this technique to smooth the flow of sentences. The key noun in this paragraph is gold. Circle the word gold and all pronouns that refer to it. Gold Paragraph 1Gold, a precIous metal,is prized for two important characteristics. You should have circled the noun gold seven times, the pronoun it twice, and the pronoun its three times.
The word it in sentence 5 refers to coin, not gold, so you should not have circled it. There is no fixed rule about how often to repeat key nouns or when to substitute pronouns. You should repeat a key noun instead of using a pronoun when the mean- ing is not clear.
Throughout the following paragraph, the word gold has been replaced by pro- nouns, making the paragraph much less coherent. Gold Paragraph Gold, a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics.
First of without all, it has a lustrous beauty that is resistant to corrosion. Therefore, it is suitable Coherence for jewelry, coins, and ornamental purposes. It never needs to be polished and will remain beautiful forever. Another of its important characteristics is its usefulness to industry and science.
For many years, it has been used in hundreds of industrial applications, such as photography and dentistry. Its most recent use is in astronauts' suits. Astronauts wear heat shields made from it for protection when they go outside spaceships in space. In conclusion, it is treasured not only for its beauty but also for its utility. In the following paragraph, the key noun is never repeated. Replace the pronoun it with the key noun English wherever you think doing so would Key Nouns make the paragraph more coherent.
English 1English has almost become an international language. SSpanish is the official language of more countries in the world, but more countries have it as their official or unofficial second language. Bin international business, it is used more than any other language, and it is the language of airline pilots and air traffic controllers all over the world.
Brherefore, unless you plan to spend your life alone on a desert island in the middle--of the Pacific Ocean, it is a useful language to know. In the following passage about dolphins, replace some of the pronouns with appropriate singular or plural nouns.
Dolphins 1Dolphins are interesting because they display almost human behavior at times. Blf one is sick, it sends out a m,essage, and others in the area swim to help it. B-rhey stay with it for days or weeks until it recovers or dies. Navy is training them to become underwater bomb disposal experts. For example, in sentence 8 of the first paragraph about gold, the writer substituted the noun use as a synonym for application in sentence 7, thereby smoothing the flow of thought from one sentence to the next.
Key Noun Substitutes Step 2 Then circle a repetitions of the key nouns, b pronouns that refer to them, and c synonyms that are substitutes for them.
You should have a total of 10 circles: Don't change from you to he or she change of person or from he to they change of number. Notice the changes the writer made for con- sistency in the following example. I revelry: In the following paragraph, the pronouns are not consistent. Correct them to make this paragraph more coherent. Using Consistent Pronouns Olympic Athletes Olympic athletes must be strong both physically and mentally.
First of all, if you hope to compete in an Olympic sport, you must be physically strong. Furthermore, aspiring 4 Olympians must train rigorouslyS for many years. For the most demanding sports, they train several hours a day, five or six days a week, for ten or more years. In addition to being physically strong, athletes must also be mentally tough. This means that you have to be totally dedicated to your sport, often giving up a normal school, family, and social life.
Being mentally strong also means that he or she must be able to withstand the intense pressure of interna- tional competition with its accompanying media6 coverage. Finally, not everyone can win a medal, so Olympians must possess the inner strength to live with defeat. Transition Transition signals are expressions such as first, finally, and however, or phrases such Signals as in conclusion, on the other hand, and as a result.
Other kinds of words such as subordinators when, although , coordinators and, but , adjectives another, addi- tional , and prepositions because of, in spite of can serve as transition signals. Transition signals are like traffic signs; they tell your reader when to go forward, tum around, slow down, and stop. In other words, they tell your reader when you are giving a similar idea similarly, and, in addition , an opposite idea on the other hand, but, in contrast , an example for example , a result therefore, as a result , or a conclusion in conclusion.
Transition signals give a paragraph coherence because they guide your reader from one idea to the next. Which paragraph contains transition signals and is more coherent? Circle all the transition signals you can identify. Transition Signa's Paragraph 1 One difference among the world's seas and oceans is that the salinity? There are reasons for this. In warm climates, water evaporates8 rapidly. The concentration 9 of salt is greater. The surrounding land is dry and does not contribute much freshwater to dilute lO the salty seawater.
In cold climate zones, water evaporates slowly. The runoff created by melting snow adds a considerable amount of freshwater to dilute the saline seawater. There are two reasons for this. First of all, in warm climate zones, water evaporates rapidly; therefore, the concentration of salt is greater.
Second, the surrounding land is dry; consequently, it does not contribute much freshwater to dilute the salty seawater. In cold climate zones, on the other hand, water evaporates slowly.
Furthermore, the runoff created by melting snow adds a considerable amount of freshwater to dilute the saline seawater.
Two tells you to look for two different reasons. Ii First of all tells you that this is the first reason. Therefore and consequently indicate that the second statement is a result of the first statement. On the other hand tells you that an opposite idea is coming. There are different kinds of transition signals. Some of them are listed in the chart on page You will find a more complete list in Appendix C, pages Each group has different rules for position in a sentence and punctuation.
Transition Words and Phrases and Conjunctive A. The runoff created by melting snow, furthermore, adds a considerable amount of freshwater to dilute the saline seawater. The Mediterranean Sea is more saline than the Red Sea, however. The words and phrases in the last four groups in the chart for listing ideas and time sequences, for emphasizing, for giving reasons, and for conclusions usually appear only at the beginning of a sentence, not in the middle or at the end. Too usually appears only at the end of a sentence, sometimes preceded by a comma.
The short time words then, now, and soon usually do not need commas. GJ if. In this case, we use them with a semicolon and a comma. Look at Compound Sentences with Conjunctive Adverbs on pages for more examples. Coordinators mayor may not have commas. When they connect two independent clauses, use a comma. When coordinators connect two words or phrases, do not use a comma.
Would you rather take a written or an oral exam? Children need not only love but also discipline. Some writers use a conuna before but and yet even when they do not connect independent clauses to emphasize the contrast of the connected ideas.
The poem is solemn, yet optimistic in tone.
Look at Compound Sentences with Coordinators on pages and the section on Parallelism Conelative Paired Conjunctions on pages for more examples. The sentence mayor may not have a comma. The general rule is this: Put a comma after a dependent clause but not in front of one. For information about subordinators, see Chapter Others The transition signals in this group include nouns such as example, adjectives such as additional, prepositions such as in addition to, verbs such as cause, and adverbs such as too.
There are no punctuation rules for tlns group, but it is important to notice what kinds of words follow these signals. An additional reason for the company's bankruptcy was the lack of competent management. Additional is an adjective, so it is followed by a noun. In addition to increased competition, the lack of competent management caused the company's bankruptcy.
In addition to is a preposition, so it is followed by a noun or noun phrase. Step 1 Circle all the transition signals in the following paragraphs.
Step 2 Punctuate the transition signals if necessary. Recognizing Transition Signals Genetic3 Engineering Genetic research has produced both exciting and frightening possibilities. Scientists are now able to create new forms of life in the laboratory because of the development of gene splicing. One beneficial application of gene splicing is in agriculture.
For example researchers have engineered a more nutritious type of rice that could help alleviate the serious problem of vitamin A deficiency. It is estimated that million children worldwide lack vitamin A, putting them at risk of permanent blindness and other health issues.
In addition genetic engineers have created larger fish, frost-resistant strawberries, and cows that produce more milk. Indeed agriculture has already benefited from the promise of genetic engineering. A dependent clause always begins with a subordinator. Some people feel that it could have terrible consequences. In fact a type of corn engineered to kill a certain insect pest also threatened to annihilate l desirable monarch butterflies.
In another accident, a genetically engineered type of corn that was approved only for animal consumption because it was toxic to humans accidentally cross-pollinated with corn grown for humans. As a result many countries banned imports of genetically modified corn for several years.
Furthermore the ability to clone human beings is a possibility that frightens many people. In , two South Korean scientists reported that they had successfully cloned a human embryo Dreifus.
CT1CE 1 A. Write the signal Choosing in the space. Add punctuation and change capital letters to small letters if Transition Signals necessary. All the transition signals in this practice are transition phrases and conjunctive adverbs. This is to give you more practice in using and punctuating these types of transition signals correctly. A recent article in Era magazine suggested ways to reduce inflation.
The article suggested that the president reduce the federal budget ; furthermore , it suggested that the government reduce federal, state, and local taxes. The same article said that the causes of inflation were easy to find the cure for inflation was not so easy to prescribe. Era also suggested that rising wages were one of the primary causes of inflation the government should take action to control wages. In physics, the weight of an object is the gravitational force 3 with which Earth attracts it; , if a man weighs pounds, this means that Earth pulls him down with a force of pounds.
The farther away from Earth a person is, the less the gravitational force of Earth. A tsunami is a tidal wave produced by an earthquake on the ocean floor. Fill in each blank: Use each signal only once. Add punctuation if necessary.
It sometimes seems true that for North Americans, time seems as valuable as money. You can have time, buy time, and take time. One wonders how much it costs and where it is taken. The 8 proof is that these poor people sometimes take courses in time management! That is really overdoing it, don't you agree? Improve the coherence of the following paragraph by adding transitions in the blank spaces. Use the hints provided in parentheses to help you choose a transition.
Move Over, DVD. Here Comes BD! First, CDs brought digital sound into our homes. Then OVO technology brought digital sound and video and revolutionized the movie industry. Soon there will be 1 additional idea revolution: A 8lu-ray disc will have several advantages. A single-sided OVO can hold 4. A single- sided 80, 3 contrast , can hold up to 27 gigabytes, enough for 13 hours of standard video.
A 4 list in order 4friction: A double-layer BO can store about 50 gigabytes, enough for 4. The cost will be about the same. Use transition signals to connect the supporting sentences smoothly. You '-'Using Transition may use the transition signals suggested for each topic, or you may use others not Signals listed.
Add other sentences without transitions if you need to in order to explain the topic completely. Sentence 1. There are four noticeable differences between British and American English. You may, of course, use your own if you wish. Sometimes I enjoy being alone. Are you using too many transition signals? Too many can be distracting rather than helpful. There is no rule about how many to use in one paragraph. Use them only when they will help your reader follow your ideas.
Which ones are helpful to the reader? Which transition signals are an unnecessary distraction? Too Many Transition Step 1 Improve the paragraph by deleting some transition signals. You may 5ignals want to rewrite sentences, and you may have to change the capitalization and punctuation. Step 2 There are many possible ways to do this assignment.
Discuss your changes with a partner or in a group. How to Grow an Avocado Tree l After you have enjoyed the delicious taste of an avocado, do not throw out the seed! You can grow a beautiful houseplant or even your own tree by following these simple steps. First, wash the seed. Second, dry it. Third, insert three toothpicks into its thickest part.
Then fill a glass or empty jar with water. After that, suspend the seed in the water with the pointed end up and the broad end down. The water should cover about an inch of the seed. Next, putjhe glass in a warm place, but not in direct sunlight. Add water when necessary to keep the bottom of the seed under water at all times. In two to six weeks, you should see roots begin to grow. Furthermore, the seed will crack open, and then a stem will emerge from the top.
However, wait until the stem is 6 to 7 inches long. Then cut it back to about 3 inches. Now wait until the roots are thick and the stem has leafed out again.
Then fill an 8- to inch diameter clay pot with enriched potting soil. Plant the seed, leaving the top half exposed. Then water it well. After that, water frequently but lightly; also give the plant an occasional deep soaking.
However, do not overwater your little tree. Yellow leaves are a sign of too much water. Then place the potted plant in a sunny window and watch it grow. The more sunlight, the better; Then, when the stem is 12 inches high, cut it back to 6 inches to encourage the growth of side branches. In just a few more weeks, you will have a beautiful indoor plant. In conclusion, enjoy your new plant, but do not expect it to bear fruit. Avocados grown from seed occasionally flower and bear fruit; however, first you will have to plant it outside and then wait anywhere from five to thirteen years.
I"Grow Your Own Tree. Your choice of one kind of logical order over another will, of course, depend on your topic and your purpose.
You may even combine two or more different logical orders in the same paragraph. The important point to remember is to arrange your ideas in some kind of order that is logical to a reader accustomed to the English way of writing. The model paragraph on how to grow an avocado tree page 33 uses time order to organize the steps. The model paragraph about gold on page 3 uses logical division. First, it discusses gold's beauty, and second its utility. The paragraph about synonyms on page 5 compares and contrasts word meanings.
CT1CE Read the following paragraphs and decide which kind of logical order is used in - -- each: Be able Recognizing to discuss the reasons for your choice. Circle all transition signals. Kinds of "Logical Order Paragraph 1 The process of machine translation of languages is complex.
To translate a document from English into Japanese, for example, the computer first analyzes an English sentence, determining its grammatical structure and identifying the subject, verb, objects, and modifiers. Next, the words are translated by an English-Japanese dictionary.
After that, another part of the computer program analyzes the resulting awkward jumble' of words and meanings and produces an intelligible sentence based on the rules of Japanese syntax 2 and the machine's understanding of what the original English sentence meant. Finally, a human bilingual editor polishes the computer-produced translation. Kind of logical order: French meetings, for example, are long and rambling 3 and rarely end on time.
Furthermore, meetings often end without closure. Another difference involves documentation. North Americans adore documentation; they have a procedure manual for everything. The French, in contrast, think this is childish. French managers find it difficult to stick to a schedule, but U. In addition, the French prefer to work alone, whereas North Americans like to work in teams. Another major difference in management style is that in French companies, authority comes from the top; French managers do not share information with subordinates and make decisions with little participation by employees beneath them.
In about B. There were more than 60 days missing from the calendar, so very soon the calendar did not match the seasons at all. Spring arrived when the calendar said that it was still winter. A few decades later, the Romans added the months of January and February to the end of the year. This calendar lasted about years. Then in 46 B. His calendar had days, with one day added every fourth year. He also moved the beginning of the year to January 1, and he renamed a month for himself: Julius July.
In Caesar's calendar, February had 29 days. The very next emperor, Augustus, not only renamed a month for himself August , but he also took one day from February and added it to August so that "his" month would be just as long as Caesar's. This calendar worked better than the previous ones, but it still was not perfect.
By , the first calendrical day of spring was 10 days too early, so in , Pope Gregory XIII, the leader of the Roman Catholic religion, made a small change to make the calendar more accurate. In the Gregorian calendar, the year is still Kjnd of logical order: Marin Independent Joumal30 Nov. The first kind of calendar is the lunar calendar, based on the phases of the moon.
A month is calculated as the time between two full moons, The Islamic calendar used in Muslim countries is a lunar calendar.
It has 12 months and a cycle of 30 years in which the 2nd, 5th, 7th, 10th, 13th, 16th, 18th, 21 st, 24th, 26th, and 29th years have days, and the others days. A second kind of calendar is the solar calendar, which is based on the revolution of Earth around the sun.
The ancient Egyptians used a solar calendar divided into 12 months of 30 days each, which left 5 uncounted days at the end of each year. A very accurate calendar developed by the Mayan Indians in North America was also a solar calendar. It had days, of which were divided into 28 weeks of 13 days each. The new year began on the th day.
Because the solar year is exactly days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, and 46 seconds long, however, a solar calendar is not totally accurate, so many cultures developed a third kind of calendar, the lunisolar calendar.
In a lunisolar calendar, extra days are added every so often to reconcile! The Chinese, Hebrew, and Gregorian calendars used today are lunisolar calendars. Every good paragraph has both unity and coherence. There are different types of transition signals.
Each type is punctuated differently. Leap D 29th, the extra day added every four years to put th nch with the solar year. Eng and. Accor ing to this xplanation, pe p there thought that because eap Day existed to fix a pro em in the calend r, It could also be used to fix-em old and unjust practice. In , the custo became an actual law in Scotland. Not only did the Scottish law allow wome to propose on any day during a Leap.
Whatever its origins, the tradition of women taking the initiative one day a year lives on in Sadie Hawkins Day celebrations held in many communities in the United States even today. Writing Practice Step 1 Choose one of the topics suggested and write a paragraph that is 10 to 15 sentences in length.
Focus on giving your paragraph unity and Unity and Coherence coherence. Follow the steps in the writing process. See Appendix A. Step 2 After you have completed your first draft, use Self-Editing Worksheet 2 on page Revise your paragraph and write a second draft if necessary.
Step 3 Exchange papers with a classmate and check each other's paragraph using Peer-Editing Worksheet 2 on page After your classmate has completed the checklist, discuss it and decide what changes you should make. Step 5 Hand in your first draft, your second draft, your final copy, and the page containing the two editing worksheets.
Topic Suggestions The influence of birth order on personality One or two place s a visitor to your country should not miss The disadvantages of being left-handed A fad, fashion, or activity of your generation that drives an older generation crazy An interesting custom or special celebration from your culture PRACTI CE 13 Choose one of the topics listed below and write a well-organized paragraph.
Try to use a specific example to support your Writing under topic sentence. Facts, Ouotations, and Statistics Academic writing normally requires that you support your ideas and opinions with facts, statistics, quotations, and similar kinds of information. You get these kinds of supporting details from outside sources such as books, magazines, newspapers, Web sites, personal interviews, and so on.
Opinions First, it is important to distinguish between facts and opinions. Opinions are sub- jective statements based on a person's beliefs or attitudes. Men are better drivers than women. Smoking is a bad habit. English is an easy language to learn. Part 1 I Writing a Paragraph Opinions are not acceptable as support. It is certainly acceptable to express opinions in academic writing. In fact, most professors want you to express your own ideas. However, you may not use an opinion as support, and if you express an opinion, you must support it with facts.
Facts are objective statements of truths. At sea level, water boils at degrees Celsius. Women live longer than men. Cigarettes are addictive. Sometimes even facts need proof. While all three statements above are facts, the last two need proof. Your readers may not believe that women live longer than men, or they may not agree that cigarettes are addictive. You have to use specific suppOli- ing details to prove that these statements are true facts. Kinds of specific supporting details include examples, statistics, and quotations.
The first three have been done for you as examples. F-NP 1. People who steal identities do a lot of damage before their victims become aware of it. The writer could give an example of a person who was victilnized before noticing it. Punishment for identity thieves is not severe enough. The writer could give an example of a typical punishment. Identity theft is more serious than any other type of theft. Identity theft is increasing at a rapid pace.
In , 31, cases of identity theft were reported to the Federal Trade Commission FTC ; in , the number was , Most people do not report identity theft to the police.
In , 60 percent of identity theft victims did not notify the police, according to the FTC. Identity theft happens to ordinary people, not just to the wealthy.
Chapter 3 I Supporting Details: As grocery clerk Sue Jamison reported, "My wallet was stolen, and within a week, the thieves had ordered an expensive cell phone package, applied for a VISA credit card, and received a PIN from the Department of Motor Vehicles to change my driving record online.
It is easy for a thief to use the U. Postal Service to steal identities. For example, thieves steal credit card statements from mailboxes, and then send a change-of-address card to the postal service to have future statements sent to a different address. Most victims of identity theft are young adults. The Federal Trade Commission reports that there were more victims in the age group than in any other group. The police should do more to protect citizens from identity theft.
Most identity thieves operate in large, organized gangs. Using Outside Sources Where can you find specific supporting details to support your ideas? For some assignments, you may be able to use examples from your own personal experience, or you may be able to gather quotations and statistics by performing an experiment, taking a survey, or interviewing people.
For other assignments, you may have to look for outside sources by researching your topic in a library or on the Internet. For basic information on doing research, see Appendix E: Research and Docu- mentation of Sources. There are three ways to insert outside information into your own writing: You will learn to use quotations in this chapter.
In Chapter 8, you will learn to summarize and paraphrase. It is important to learn how to use information from outside sources without com- mitting plagiarism. Plagiarism is using someone else's words or ideas as ifthey were your own, and it is a serious offense.
Students who plagiarize may fail a class or even be expelled from school. When you use information from an outside source without acknowledging that source, you are guilty of plagiarism.
One way to avoid plagiarism is to always put quotation marks around words that you copy exactly. You do not need to use quotation marks if you change the words. You are also guilty of plagiarism if you fail to cite the source of outside infonnation-words or ideas-that you use. To cite a source means to tell where you got the infonnation.
Sources 1. Insert a short reference in parentheses at the end of each piece of borrowed information. This short reference is called an in-text citation. Prepare a list describing all your sources completely.
This list is titled "Works Cited" and appears as the last page of your paper. Here is an example of an in-text citation and of its corresponding entry in a works-cited list. Notice the position and punctuation of the citation-at the end of the last sentence of the borrowed information, before the final period. There was no author. If readers want more information about this source, they can tum to the works- cited list at the end of the essay, report, or paper and find this entry: The date 26 Feb.
More complete information on how to write in-text citations and works-cited lists is found in Appendix E: Quotations Quotations from reliable and knowledgeable sources are good supporting details. There are two kinds of quotations: In a direct quotation, you copy another person's exact words spoken or written and enclose them in quotation marks. In an indirect quotation, you report the person's words without quotation marks, but with a reporting expression such as according to XYZ.
Direct Read the following model and notice how direct quotations are used to support Ouotations the topic sentence. Notice that a quotation can be a complete sentence or several sentences or a short phrase. Also notice the punctuation of each quotation. Cbapter 3 I Supporting Details: Michael Kar. Which sentence states the main idea of the first paragraph?
What direct quotation suppOlis it? What phrase introduces the quotation? What is the main idea in the second paragraph? What three direct quotations support it? What verbs introduce the quotations in the second paragraph? Explain the in-text citation at the end of the second paragraph. How can you tell? Reporting To introduce borrowed information-direct quotations, indirect quotations, or Verbs and statistics-use the phrase according to or a reporting verb such as the following: Phrases assert insist report suggest claim maintain say write declare mention state IHerper, Matthew.
Perfonnance Drugs Outrun Olympics. The fonn of this in-text citation shows that the words in quotation marks are from paragraph 4 of an online article written by a person whose last name is Herper.
The form of this citation means that the words in quotation marks were spoken by Dr. Michael Karsten and were quoted on page 62 of an article written by two people named Bamberger and Yaeger. Reporting verbs can appear before, in the middle of, or after bon'owed information. The reporting phrase according to usually appears before or after but not in the middle.
One young bicyclist says, "To win in world-class competition, you have to take drugs" Jones. According to one young bicyclist, athletes have to take drugs to win Jones. Athletes have to take drugs to win, according to one young bicyclist Jones. Reporting verbs can be used either with or without the subordinator as. As one writer says when discussing the case of an Olympic medallist who unknowingly took a banned drug, "The human body, of course, doesn't distinguish intentional use from inadvertent exposure.
One writer says when discussing the case of an Olympic medallist who unknowingly took a banned drug, "The human body, of course, doesn't distinguish intentional use from inadvertent exposure. Reporting verbs can be in any tense. However, be aware that a past tense reporting verb may cause changes in verbs, pronouns, and time expressions in an indirect quotation.
See Sequence of Tenses Rules on page Some critics claimed that the International Olympic Committee had been lax on enforcement of drug bans " Olympics," par. Including the source of the bon'owed information with the reporting expression gives authority to your writing because it lets your reader know immediately that your information is from a credible source. The institute of Global Ethics warns, "The Olympics could well become just another money-drenched media promotion in which contestants will be motivated less by athletic glory than by lucrative future contracts" Kidder, par.
Facts, Quotations, and Statistics 45 punctuating Follow these generalmles for punctuating direct quotations. Direct 1. Do not use quotation marks with paraphrases, summaries, or indirect quotations.
Normally, place commas and periods before the first mark and also before the second mark in a pair of quotation marks. According to Sports Illustrated, "Eliminating drug use from Olympic sports would be no small challenge. There are two important exceptions: Charles Yesalis believes that "a large percentage" of athletes who have set new records have done so with the help of performance-enhancing drugs qtd.
The Institute of Global Ethics warns, "The Olympics could well become just another money-drenched media promotion in which contestants will be motivated less by athletic glory than by lucrative future contracts" Kidder, par.
Capitalize the first word of the quotation as well as the first word of the sentence. Donald Catlin, director of a drug-testing lab eat UCLA, stated, "The sophisticated athlete who wants to take drugs has switched to things we can't test for" qtd.
If you break a quoted sentence into two parts, enclose both parts in quotation marks and separate the pal1S with commas. Capitalize only the first word of the sentence. Donald Catlin, director of a drug-testing lab at UCLA, "has switched to things we can't test for" qtd. If you omit words, use an ellipsis three spaced periods.
According to a article in Sports Illustrated, "The use of steroids has spread to almost every sport, from major league baseball to college basketball to high school football" Bamberger and Yaeger If you add words, put square brackets around the words you have added.
One athlete declared, "The testers know that the [drug] gurus are smarter than they are" qtd. Use single quotation marks to enclose a quotation within a quotation. A young athlete openly admitted, "My ethical inner voice tells me, 'Don't use drugs,' but my competitive inner voice says, 'You can't win if you don't'" Jones.
If your quotation is four lines or longer, do not use quotation marks. Introduce this type of quotation with a colon and indent it one inch from the left-hand margin.
A national news agency reported these shocking survey results: Several years ago [when] athletes were asked if they would take a performance-enhancing drug if they knew they would NOT be caught and they would win, said they would take the drug.
The second question revealed a more frightening scenario. The athletes were asked if they would take a drug that would ensure they would win every competition for five years and wouldn't get caught, but the side effects would kill them-more than HALF said they would take the drug " Olympics," par.
For more examples showing the use of quotation marks, see pages in Appendix B. Punctuating Direct Quotations 1. Yixuan Ma, a well-known astrophysicist who has been studying black holes, said they are the most interesting phenomena we astrophysicists have ever studied. As she explained in black holes the laws of nature do not seem to apply.
A black hole is a tiny point with the mass 25 times the mass of our sun explained Ma's associate, Chun-Yi Suo Black holes are created by the death of a very large star she stated. It is an invisible vacuum cleaner in space she added with tremendous gravitational pull. According to Dr. Su, if a person falls into a black hole, he will eventually be crushed due to the tremendous gravitational forces.
Time will slow down for him as he approaches the point of no return she said and when he reaches the point of no return, time will stand still for him. For this reason, indirect quotations are sometimes called reported speech. Indirect quotations are introduced by the same reporting verbs used for direct quotations, and the word that is often added for clarity. The tense of verbs in indirect quotations is affected by the tense of the reporting verb. Compare the following model with the second paragraph of the model for direct quotations on page Notice the changes that occur when you rewrite direct quo- tations as indirect quotations.
The same sentence numbers are used to help you compare the two para- graphs. Drugs and the Olympic Games 2? Michael Karsten, a Dutch physician who said he had prescribed anabolic steroids to hundreds of world-class athletes, stated that if [athletes] were especially gifted, [they] might win once, but from his experience [they] couldn't continue to win without drugs.
Underline the verbs said and stated in sentence 6. What tense are these verbs? Underline the verbs in the indirect quotations following these two verbs.
Compare them with the same verbs in the model on page Are they in the same or a different tense? Compare sentence 7 in both models. What has been added to sentence 7 in the model for indirect quotations?
How did the verb in the quotation change? In sentence 6, why are the words athletes and they in square brackets? Compare sentence 9 in both models. Did any words change? Changing Direct Ouotatiom; to lndirect Ouotatiom; To change a direct quotation to an indirect quotation: Omit the quotation marks.
Add the subordinator that. You may omit that if the meaning is clear without it. Change the verb tense if necessary. Follow the sequence of tenses rules. Change pronouns and time expressions if necessary to keep the sense of the original. Also, pronouns and sometimes time expres- sions may change.
Simple past and present She said, "We didn't have She said that they hadn't pertect change to past time to eat breakfast. He said, "The exam has He said that the exam just started. Will changes to would, Sam mentioned, "Today I will Sam mentioned that today can to could, may to might, eat Chinese food, and he would eat Chinese food and must to had to. Time expressions may The teacher said, "You must The teacher said that we change if the meaning finish the test right now.
He says, "I can finish it today. The lawyer said, "My client is innocent. He said, "Water boils at a lower temperature in the mountains. For additional examples of indirect quotations, look at Chapter Noun Clauses. Facts, Ouotations, and Statistics 49 Rewrite the following direct quotations as indirect quotations. Changing Direct 1. Television channel KSA General Manager Jim Bums said, "Not everyone Quotations can attend college in the traditional way; therefore, taking courses via to Indirect television will offer many more students the chance to earn a college Quotations degree.
Pre-med student Alma Rodriguez said, "I miss being on campus, but I have to work and take care of my family. Other students said, "Last year, we spent several hours a day commuting to and from school. Now we don't have to do that. Computer engineering student Amir Mehdizadeh stated, "I can choose when to study and how to study without pressure. Use the quotations for support. You may use them either as direct or as indirect quota- Using Quotations as Support tions.
Include some additional supporting sentences and transition signals to connect the ideas and make your paragraph flow smoothly. Step 1 Copy the topic sentence exactly as it is given. Step 2 Write several supporting sentences, using the main points and quotations supplied.
Add supporting details such as examples if you can. Use the techniques and rules you have learned for direct and indirect quotations.
Step 3 Add an in-text citation in the proper format after each direct and indirect quotation. Facebook 0. Twitter 0. Pinterest 0. LinkedIn 0. Related Posts: A Text and Reader College Writing: A Handbook for International Students. British English from A to Zed: Comments carro com isencao de imposto says: February 3, at 8: Jimmy says: February 5, at 7: Leave A Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published.
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